This page is brought to you by Brian Golding (Golding@McMaster.CA) and is copied locally here to speed your access. To go to the original page (should you find something interesting or should you wish to follow links) click on

Current Issue of Nature


Volume 557 Issue 7705, 17 May 2018

Volume 557 Issue 7705, 17 May 2018

Volume 557 Issue 7705

How to grow healthy labs

A healthy research environment is fundamental to good science. But it is an aspect that is rarely discussed. That’s partly because a lab’s ‘health’ is complex and difficult to assess — it is the product of a whole host of factors, such as inclusivity, communication, expectations and training. In this special issue, Nature explores how the working environment shapes research quality and morale — and what can be done to strengthen the research enterprise. From our survey of more than 3,000 researchers to first-hand experiences of how to nurture and improve research culture, we unpick the issues that can derail a lab and that can help make it the best place to work.

Cover image: Marco Goran Romano

This Week

News in Focus

Comment

Careers

Futures

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    An artificial-intelligence technique called deep learning has now been used to model spatial navigation. The system develops a representation of space similar to that of the grid cells found in the mammalian brain.

    • Francesco Savelli
    •  & James J. Knierim
  • News & Views |

    Computer simulations show that areas of the ocean that have low levels of dissolved oxygen will expand, but then shrink, in response to global warming — adding to an emerging picture of the finely balanced processes involved.

    • Laure Resplandy
  • News & Views |

    Seventy-six pairs of transcription factors can induce mouse connective-tissue cells to adopt a neuron-like identity in vitro. This discovery provides insights into both neuronal development and cell reprogramming.

    • Lynette Lim
    •  & Oscar Marín
  • News & Views |

    Chlorofluorocarbons are the main class of chemical that depleted the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Measurements reveal that emissions of these compounds are rising again, despite international rules restricting their use.

    • Michaela I. Hegglin
  • News & Views |

    Computational and biochemical studies have revealed the mechanisms by which arrestin proteins are activated by G-protein-coupled receptors — potentially opening up broad avenues for drug discovery.

    • Brian Krumm
    •  & Bryan L. Roth
  • Insight

  • Reviews

  • Perspectives

  • Articles

  • Article |

    Sequences of 137 ancient and 502 modern human genomes illuminate the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age and document the replacement of Indo-European speakers of West Eurasian ancestry by Turkic-speaking groups of East Asian ancestry.

    • Peter de Barros Damgaard
    • , Nina Marchi
    • , Simon Rasmussen
    • , Michaël Peyrot
    • , Gabriel Renaud
    • , Thorfinn Korneliussen
    • , J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar
    • , Mikkel Winther Pedersen
    • , Amy Goldberg
    • , Emma Usmanova
    • , Nurbol Baimukhanov
    • , Valeriy Loman
    • , Lotte Hedeager
    • , Anders Gorm Pedersen
    • , Kasper Nielsen
    • , Gennady Afanasiev
    • , Kunbolot Akmatov
    • , Almaz Aldashev
    • , Ashyk Alpaslan
    • , Gabit Baimbetov
    • , Vladimir I. Bazaliiskii
    • , Arman Beisenov
    • , Bazartseren Boldbaatar
    • , Bazartseren Boldgiv
    • , Choduraa Dorzhu
    • , Sturla Ellingvag
    • , Diimaajav Erdenebaatar
    • , Rana Dajani
    • , Evgeniy Dmitriev
    • , Valeriy Evdokimov
    • , Karin M. Frei
    • , Andrey Gromov
    • , Alexander Goryachev
    • , Hakon Hakonarson
    • , Tatyana Hegay
    • , Zaruhi Khachatryan
    • , Ruslan Khaskhanov
    • , Egor Kitov
    • , Alina Kolbina
    • , Tabaldiev Kubatbek
    • , Alexey Kukushkin
    • , Igor Kukushkin
    • , Nina Lau
    • , Ashot Margaryan
    • , Inga Merkyte
    • , Ilya V. Mertz
    • , Viktor K. Mertz
    • , Enkhbayar Mijiddorj
    • , Vyacheslav Moiyesev
    • , Gulmira Mukhtarova
    • , Bekmukhanbet Nurmukhanbetov
    • , Z. Orozbekova
    • , Irina Panyushkina
    • , Karol Pieta
    • , Václav Smrčka
    • , Irina Shevnina
    • , Andrey Logvin
    • , Karl-Göran Sjögren
    • , Tereza Štolcová
    • , Kadicha Tashbaeva
    • , Alexander Tkachev
    • , Turaly Tulegenov
    • , Dmitriy Voyakin
    • , Levon Yepiskoposyan
    • , Sainbileg Undrakhbold
    • , Victor Varfolomeev
    • , Andrzej Weber
    • , Nikolay Kradin
    • , Morten E. Allentoft
    • , Ludovic Orlando
    • , Rasmus Nielsen
    • , Martin Sikora
    • , Evelyne Heyer
    • , Kristian Kristiansen
    •  & Eske Willerslev
  • Article |

    A screen in which combinatorial pairs of transcription factors are exogenously expressed in fibroblasts identifies different combinations that reprogram these cells into induced neuronal cells with diverse functional properties.

    • Rachel Tsunemoto
    • , Sohyon Lee
    • , Attila Szűcs
    • , Pavel Chubukov
    • , Irina Sokolova
    • , Joel W. Blanchard
    • , Kevin T. Eade
    • , Jacob Bruggemann
    • , Chunlei Wu
    • , Ali Torkamani
    • , Pietro Paolo Sanna
    •  & Kristin K. Baldwin
  • Article |

    Transient engagement of the G protein-coupled receptor core can act as a catalyst to activate cellular β-arrestin function after dissociation from the receptor.

    • Kelsie Eichel
    • , Damien Jullié
    • , Benjamin Barsi-Rhyne
    • , Naomi R. Latorraca
    • , Matthieu Masureel
    • , Jean-Baptiste Sibarita
    • , Ron O. Dror
    •  & Mark von Zastrow
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Observation of the emission line of doubly ionized oxygen at a redshift of 9.1096 reveals that star formation began at a redshift of about 15, around 250 million years after the Big Bang.

    • Takuya Hashimoto
    • , Nicolas Laporte
    • , Ken Mawatari
    • , Richard S. Ellis
    • , Akio K. Inoue
    • , Erik Zackrisson
    • , Guido Roberts-Borsani
    • , Wei Zheng
    • , Yoichi Tamura
    • , Franz E. Bauer
    • , Thomas Fletcher
    • , Yuichi Harikane
    • , Bunyo Hatsukade
    • , Natsuki H. Hayatsu
    • , Yuichi Matsuda
    • , Hiroshi Matsuo
    • , Takashi Okamoto
    • , Masami Ouchi
    • , Roser Pelló
    • , Claes-Erik Rydberg
    • , Ikkoh Shimizu
    • , Yoshiaki Taniguchi
    • , Hideki Umehata
    •  & Naoki Yoshida
  • Letter |

    Measurements of the quark pressure distribution in the proton reveal a strong repulsive pressure near the proton’s centre (stronger than the pressure in neutron stars) and a binding pressure at greater distances.

    • V. D. Burkert
    • , L. Elouadrhiri
    •  & F. X. Girod
  • Letter |

    For appropriately aligned layers of different two-dimensional materials, the separation between layers—and hence the interlayer coupling—is very sensitive to pressure, leading to pressure-induced changes in the electronic properties of the heterostructures.

    • Matthew Yankowitz
    • , Jeil Jung
    • , Evan Laksono
    • , Nicolas Leconte
    • , Bheema L. Chittari
    • , K. Watanabe
    • , T. Taniguchi
    • , Shaffique Adam
    • , David Graf
    •  & Cory R. Dean
  • Letter |

    Electrode films prepared from a liquid-crystal phase of vertically aligned two-dimensional titanium carbide show electrochemical energy storage that is nearly independent of film thickness.

    • Yu Xia
    • , Tyler S. Mathis
    • , Meng-Qiang Zhao
    • , Babak Anasori
    • , Alei Dang
    • , Zehang Zhou
    • , Hyesung Cho
    • , Yury Gogotsi
    •  & Shu Yang
  • Letter |

    Atmospheric CFC-11 concentrations have been declining less rapidly since 2012; evidence suggests that this finding is explained by an increase in the emission of CFC-11during these years.

    • Stephen A. Montzka
    • , Geoff S. Dutton
    • , Pengfei Yu
    • , Eric Ray
    • , Robert W. Portmann
    • , John S. Daniel
    • , Lambert Kuijpers
    • , Brad D. Hall
    • , Debra Mondeel
    • , Carolina Siso
    • , J. David Nance
    • , Matt Rigby
    • , Alistair J. Manning
    • , Lei Hu
    • , Fred Moore
    • , Ben R. Miller
    •  & James W. Elkins
  • Letter |

    Phylogenies reconstructed using 12 hepatitis B virus genomes, which were recovered from ancient human genome data, reveal a complex history of hepatitis B evolution that is not evident when using only modern samples.

    • Barbara Mühlemann
    • , Terry C. Jones
    • , Peter de Barros Damgaard
    • , Morten E. Allentoft
    • , Irina Shevnina
    • , Andrey Logvin
    • , Emma Usmanova
    • , Irina P. Panyushkina
    • , Bazartseren Boldgiv
    • , Tsevel Bazartseren
    • , Kadicha Tashbaeva
    • , Victor Merz
    • , Nina Lau
    • , Václav Smrčka
    • , Dmitry Voyakin
    • , Egor Kitov
    • , Andrey Epimakhov
    • , Dalia Pokutta
    • , Magdolna Vicze
    • , T. Douglas Price
    • , Vyacheslav Moiseyev
    • , Anders J. Hansen
    • , Ludovic Orlando
    • , Simon Rasmussen
    • , Martin Sikora
    • , Lasse Vinner
    • , Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus
    • , Derek J. Smith
    • , Dieter Glebe
    • , Ron A. M. Fouchier
    • , Christian Drosten
    • , Karl-Göran Sjögren
    • , Kristian Kristiansen
    •  & Eske Willerslev
  • Letter | | open

    The genome sequence of Triticum urartu, the progenitor of the A subgenome of hexaploid wheat, provides insight into genome duplication during grass evolution.

    • Hong-Qing Ling
    • , Bin Ma
    • , Xiaoli Shi
    • , Hui Liu
    • , Lingli Dong
    • , Hua Sun
    • , Yinghao Cao
    • , Qiang Gao
    • , Shusong Zheng
    • , Ye Li
    • , Ying Yu
    • , Huilong Du
    • , Ming Qi
    • , Yan Li
    • , Hongwei Lu
    • , Hua Yu
    • , Yan Cui
    • , Ning Wang
    • , Chunlin Chen
    • , Huilan Wu
    • , Yan Zhao
    • , Juncheng Zhang
    • , Yiwen Li
    • , Wenjuan Zhou
    • , Bairu Zhang
    • , Weijuan Hu
    • , Michiel J. T. van Eijk
    • , Jifeng Tang
    • , Hanneke M. A. Witsenboer
    • , Shancen Zhao
    • , Zhensheng Li
    • , Aimin Zhang
    • , Daowen Wang
    •  & Chengzhi Liang
  • Letter |

    Grid-like representations emerge spontaneously within a neural network trained to self-localize, enabling the agent to take shortcuts to destinations using vector-based navigation.

    • Andrea Banino
    • , Caswell Barry
    • , Benigno Uria
    • , Charles Blundell
    • , Timothy Lillicrap
    • , Piotr Mirowski
    • , Alexander Pritzel
    • , Martin J. Chadwick
    • , Thomas Degris
    • , Joseph Modayil
    • , Greg Wayne
    • , Hubert Soyer
    • , Fabio Viola
    • , Brian Zhang
    • , Ross Goroshin
    • , Neil Rabinowitz
    • , Razvan Pascanu
    • , Charlie Beattie
    • , Stig Petersen
    • , Amir Sadik
    • , Stephen Gaffney
    • , Helen King
    • , Koray Kavukcuoglu
    • , Demis Hassabis
    • , Raia Hadsell
    •  & Dharshan Kumaran
  • Letter |

    Finely tuned control of strain engraftment and abundance in the mouse gut microbiota was achieved using the marine polysaccharide porphyran, which could exclusively be used by an introduced subset of wild-type or genetically modified Bacteroides strains.

    • Elizabeth Stanley Shepherd
    • , William C. DeLoache
    • , Kali M. Pruss
    • , Weston R. Whitaker
    •  & Justin L. Sonnenburg
  • Letter |

    A new model of cardiac trabeculation in mice is presented in which NOTCH1 and NRG1 have opposing roles in extracellular matrix degradation and synthesis that are essential for defining trabecular architecture.

    • Gonzalo del Monte-Nieto
    • , Mirana Ramialison
    • , Arne A. S. Adam
    • , Bingruo Wu
    • , Alla Aharonov
    • , Gabriele D’Uva
    • , Lauren M. Bourke
    • , Mara E. Pitulescu
    • , Hanying Chen
    • , José Luis de la Pompa
    • , Weinian Shou
    • , Ralf H. Adams
    • , Sarah K. Harten
    • , Eldad Tzahor
    • , Bin Zhou
    •  & Richard P. Harvey
  • Letter |

    Molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed fluorescence spectroscopy show that the transmembrane core and cytoplasmic tail of G-protein-coupled receptors independently and cooperatively activate arrestin.

    • Naomi R. Latorraca
    • , Jason K. Wang
    • , Brian Bauer
    • , Raphael J. L. Townshend
    • , Scott A. Hollingsworth
    • , Julia E. Olivieri
    • , H. Eric Xu
    • , Martha E. Sommer
    •  & Ron O. Dror

Insight

  • Insight |

    Regeneration

    New advances in harnessing the body’s ability to regenerate as well as how tuneable biomaterials will generate new treatments for a large range of diseases are discussed.