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Current Issue of Nature


Volume 572 Issue 7770, 22 August 2019

Volume 572 Issue 7770, 22 August 2019

Burning issue

The cover shows a wildfire in Alberta, Canada, in 2016. Naturally occurring fires in boreal forests emit large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere, largely through the combustion of organic soil. But during each fire, a proportion of the soil escapes combustion and over subsequent fires this forms a store of ‘legacy’ carbon locked up in the soil. This helps to make such forests a net carbon sink, holding some 30–40% of terrestrial carbon. In this issue, Xanthe Walker, Michelle Mack and their colleagues reveal that loss of legacy carbon occurred in dry, younger forests (60 years or less) following wildfires in the Northwest Territories in Canada. The researchers’ findings suggest that with boreal wildfires increasing in size, frequency and intensity, young forests may become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere over consecutive fires and may switch the boreal carbon balance from a sink to a source.

Cover image: Darryl Dyck/Bloomberg/Getty

This Week

News in Focus

Comment

Technology

Careers

    Columns

  • Career Column |

    Overcoming my initial struggles after leaving China to start my PhD has been like riding a bike.

    • Shuxuan Zheng

Futures

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Carbon has been stored in the organic layers of boreal-forest soils for hundreds of years. An analysis reveals that this carbon might be released into the atmosphere as global warming increases the frequency of wildfires.

    • Cornelia Rumpel
  • News & Views |

    A type of immune cell called a CD8 T cell, which usually kills disease-causing agents, has been found instead to suppress self-reactive immune cells, thereby offering protection against an autoimmune disease in mice.

    • Hye-Jung Kim
    •  & Harvey Cantor
  • News & Views |

    The movement of small droplets on a substrate is governed by surface-tension forces. A technique that can tune the surface tension of robust oxide substrates for droplet manipulation could open up many applications.

    • Frieder Mugele
  • News & Views |

    An analysis of gut formation in the fruit fly has revealed how gene expression and mechanical forces are coordinated in adjacent populations of cells. The findings highlight the tissue-level control of embryonic development.

    • Kristen A. Panfilio
  • News & Views |

    How Nature reported early experiments on magnetic data storage in 1969, and an alternative stuffing for lifebelts in 1919.

  • Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Abiotic processes can mimic or alter the biogenic traces of early life but advances in micro- and nanoscale analyses provide evidence that—with geological contextualization—improves our ability to address this issue.

    • Emmanuelle J. Javaux
  • Articles

  • Article |

    A global dataset of the satellite-tracked movements of pelagic sharks and fishing fleets show that sharks—and, in particular, commercially important species—have limited spatial refuge from fishing effort.

    • Nuno Queiroz
    • , Nicolas E. Humphries
    • , Ana Couto
    • , Marisa Vedor
    • , Ivo da Costa
    • , Ana M. M. Sequeira
    • , Gonzalo Mucientes
    • , António M. Santos
    • , Francisco J. Abascal
    • , Debra L. Abercrombie
    • , Katya Abrantes
    • , David Acuña-Marrero
    • , André S. Afonso
    • , Pedro Afonso
    • , Darrell Anders
    • , Gonzalo Araujo
    • , Randall Arauz
    • , Pascal Bach
    • , Adam Barnett
    • , Diego Bernal
    • , Michael L. Berumen
    • , Sandra Bessudo Lion
    • , Natalia P. A. Bezerra
    • , Antonin V. Blaison
    • , Barbara A. Block
    • , Mark E. Bond
    • , Ramón Bonfil
    • , Russell W. Bradford
    • , Camrin D. Braun
    • , Edward J. Brooks
    • , Annabelle Brooks
    • , Judith Brown
    • , Barry D. Bruce
    • , Michael E. Byrne
    • , Steven E. Campana
    • , Aaron B. Carlisle
    • , Demian D. Chapman
    • , Taylor K. Chapple
    • , John Chisholm
    • , Christopher R. Clarke
    • , Eric G. Clua
    • , Jesse E. M. Cochran
    • , Estelle C. Crochelet
    • , Laurent Dagorn
    • , Ryan Daly
    • , Daniel Devia Cortés
    • , Thomas K. Doyle
    • , Michael Drew
    • , Clinton A. J. Duffy
    • , Thor Erikson
    • , Eduardo Espinoza
    • , Luciana C. Ferreira
    • , Francesco Ferretti
    • , John D. Filmalter
    • , G. Chris Fischer
    • , Richard Fitzpatrick
    • , Jorge Fontes
    • , Fabien Forget
    • , Mark Fowler
    • , Malcolm P. Francis
    • , Austin J. Gallagher
    • , Enrico Gennari
    • , Simon D. Goldsworthy
    • , Matthew J. Gollock
    • , Jonathan R. Green
    • , Johan A. Gustafson
    • , Tristan L. Guttridge
    • , Hector M. Guzman
    • , Neil Hammerschlag
    • , Luke Harman
    • , Fábio H. V. Hazin
    • , Matthew Heard
    • , Alex R. Hearn
    • , John C. Holdsworth
    • , Bonnie J. Holmes
    • , Lucy A. Howey
    • , Mauricio Hoyos
    • , Robert E. Hueter
    • , Nigel E. Hussey
    • , Charlie Huveneers
    • , Dylan T. Irion
    • , David M. P. Jacoby
    • , Oliver J. D. Jewell
    • , Ryan Johnson
    • , Lance K. B. Jordan
    • , Salvador J. Jorgensen
    • , Warren Joyce
    • , Clare A. Keating Daly
    • , James T. Ketchum
    • , A. Peter Klimley
    • , Alison A. Kock
    • , Pieter Koen
    • , Felipe Ladino
    • , Fernanda O. Lana
    • , James S. E. Lea
    • , Fiona Llewellyn
    • , Warrick S. Lyon
    • , Anna MacDonnell
    • , Bruno C. L. Macena
    • , Heather Marshall
    • , Jaime D. McAllister
    • , Rory McAuley
    • , Michael A. Meÿer
    • , John J. Morris
    • , Emily R. Nelson
    • , Yannis P. Papastamatiou
    • , Toby A. Patterson
    • , Cesar Peñaherrera-Palma
    • , Julian G. Pepperell
    • , Simon J. Pierce
    • , Francois Poisson
    • , Lina Maria Quintero
    • , Andrew J. Richardson
    • , Paul J. Rogers
    • , Christoph A. Rohner
    • , David R. L. Rowat
    • , Melita Samoilys
    • , Jayson M. Semmens
    • , Marcus Sheaves
    • , George Shillinger
    • , Mahmood Shivji
    • , Sarika Singh
    • , Gregory B. Skomal
    • , Malcolm J. Smale
    • , Laurenne B. Snyders
    • , German Soler
    • , Marc Soria
    • , Kilian M. Stehfest
    • , John D. Stevens
    • , Simon R. Thorrold
    • , Mariana T. Tolotti
    • , Alison Towner
    • , Paulo Travassos
    • , John P. Tyminski
    • , Frederic Vandeperre
    • , Jeremy J. Vaudo
    • , Yuuki Y. Watanabe
    • , Sam B. Weber
    • , Bradley M. Wetherbee
    • , Timothy D. White
    • , Sean Williams
    • , Patricia M. Zárate
    • , Robert Harcourt
    • , Graeme C. Hays
    • , Mark G. Meekan
    • , Michele Thums
    • , Xabier Irigoien
    • , Victor M. Eguiluz
    • , Carlos M. Duarte
    • , Lara L. Sousa
    • , Samantha J. Simpson
    • , Emily J. Southall
    •  & David W. Sims
  • Article |

    Tissue shape changes in the posterior endoderm of the early Drosophila embryo are driven by actomyosin contractions emerging from a transcriptional induction followed by a mechanically-driven propagation of RhoI–myosin II activation.

    • Anaïs Bailles
    • , Claudio Collinet
    • , Jean-Marc Philippe
    • , Pierre-François Lenne
    • , Edwin Munro
    •  & Thomas Lecuit
  • Article |

    A study of the functional microbiome in a mouse model of ALS shows that several gut bacteria may modulate the severity of the disease.

    • Eran Blacher
    • , Stavros Bashiardes
    • , Hagit Shapiro
    • , Daphna Rothschild
    • , Uria Mor
    • , Mally Dori-Bachash
    • , Christian Kleimeyer
    • , Claudia Moresi
    • , Yotam Harnik
    • , Maya Zur
    • , Michal Zabari
    • , Rotem Ben-Zeev Brik
    • , Denise Kviatcovsky
    • , Niv Zmora
    • , Yotam Cohen
    • , Noam Bar
    • , Izhak Levi
    • , Nira Amar
    • , Tevie Mehlman
    • , Alexander Brandis
    • , Inbal Biton
    • , Yael Kuperman
    • , Michael Tsoory
    • , Leenor Alfahel
    • , Alon Harmelin
    • , Michal Schwartz
    • , Adrian Israelson
    • , Liisa Arike
    • , Malin E. V. Johansson
    • , Gunnar C. Hansson
    • , Marc Gotkine
    • , Eran Segal
    •  & Eran Elinav
  • Article |

    Activated clonally expanded CD4+ T cells display specificity to the myelin peptide MOG, whereas clonally expanded CD8+ T cells depend on T cell receptor recognition of unrelated surrogate peptides and have a regulatory function.

    • Naresha Saligrama
    • , Fan Zhao
    • , Michael J. Sikora
    • , William S. Serratelli
    • , Ricardo A. Fernandes
    • , David M. Louis
    • , Winnie Yao
    • , Xuhuai Ji
    • , Juliana Idoyaga
    • , Vinit B. Mahajan
    • , Lars M. Steinmetz
    • , Yueh-Hsiu Chien
    • , Stephen L. Hauser
    • , Jorge R. Oksenberg
    • , K. Christopher Garcia
    •  & Mark M. Davis
  • Article |

    The cryo-EM structure of the zebrafish cation–chloride cotransporter NKCC1 reveals the domain organization, ion translocation pathway, ion-binding sites and key residues for binding activity, providing insights into the activity of this family of transporter proteins with key roles in physiology.

    • Thomas A. Chew
    • , Benjamin J. Orlando
    • , Jinru Zhang
    • , Naomi R. Latorraca
    • , Amy Wang
    • , Scott A. Hollingsworth
    • , Dong-Hua Chen
    • , Ron O. Dror
    • , Maofu Liao
    •  & Liang Feng
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Shot-noise measurements in copper oxides reveal paired charge carriers existing in the pseudogap above the superconducting critical temperature, shedding light on the properties of high-temperature superconductivity in these materials.

    • Panpan Zhou
    • , Liyang Chen
    • , Yue Liu
    • , Ilya Sochnikov
    • , Anthony T. Bollinger
    • , Myung-Geun Han
    • , Yimei Zhu
    • , Xi He
    • , Ivan Boz̆ović
    •  & Douglas Natelson
  • Letter |

    Large second-harmonic generation is observed in antiferromagnetic bilayers of CrI3, providing information about the microscopic origin of layered antiferromagnetism and motivating the use of two-dimensional magnets in nonlinear optical devices.

    • Zeyuan Sun
    • , Yangfan Yi
    • , Tiancheng Song
    • , Genevieve Clark
    • , Bevin Huang
    • , Yuwei Shan
    • , Shuang Wu
    • , Di Huang
    • , Chunlei Gao
    • , Zhanghai Chen
    • , Michael McGuire
    • , Ting Cao
    • , Di Xiao
    • , Wei-Tao Liu
    • , Wang Yao
    • , Xiaodong Xu
    •  & Shiwei Wu
  • Letter |

    Extraordinarily thick organic light-emitting diodes can be fabricated using hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites as the transport layers, thus relaxing fabrication constraints without affecting their efficiency, voltage requirement or durability.

    • Toshinori Matsushima
    • , Fatima Bencheikh
    • , Takeshi Komino
    • , Matthew R. Leyden
    • , Atula S. D. Sandanayaka
    • , Chuanjiang Qin
    •  & Chihaya Adachi
  • Letter |

    Titration gas chromatography is developed as an analytical method of distinguishing between lithium metal and lithium compounds within a cycled battery and assessing the amount of unreacted metallic lithium available.

    • Chengcheng Fang
    • , Jinxing Li
    • , Minghao Zhang
    • , Yihui Zhang
    • , Fan Yang
    • , Jungwoo Z. Lee
    • , Min-Han Lee
    • , Judith Alvarado
    • , Marshall A. Schroeder
    • , Yangyuchen Yang
    • , Bingyu Lu
    • , Nicholas Williams
    • , Miguel Ceja
    • , Li Yang
    • , Mei Cai
    • , Jing Gu
    • , Kang Xu
    • , Xuefeng Wang
    •  & Ying Shirley Meng
  • Letter |

    A stretchable polymer pump that uses electric fields to accelerate ions in dielectric liquids can generate flow even when bent into different conformations, offering applications in soft robotics.

    • Vito Cacucciolo
    • , Jun Shintake
    • , Yu Kuwajima
    • , Shingo Maeda
    • , Dario Floreano
    •  & Herbert Shea
  • Letter |

    Soil radiocarbon dating reveals that combusted ‘legacy carbon’—soil carbon that escaped burning during previous fires—could shift the carbon balance of boreal ecosystems, resulting in a positive climate feedback.

    • Xanthe J. Walker
    • , Jennifer L. Baltzer
    • , Steven G. Cumming
    • , Nicola J. Day
    • , Christopher Ebert
    • , Scott Goetz
    • , Jill F. Johnstone
    • , Stefano Potter
    • , Brendan M. Rogers
    • , Edward A. G. Schuur
    • , Merritt R. Turetsky
    •  & Michelle C. Mack
  • Letter |

    A framework that includes inequality shows that extreme inequality prevents cooperation, but overall welfare is maximized when endowments and productivities are aligned such that more-productive individuals receive higher endowments.

    • Oliver P. Hauser
    • , Christian Hilbe
    • , Krishnendu Chatterjee
    •  & Martin A. Nowak
  • Letter |

    Spatially resolved transcriptomes of cell populations at defined positions in the early mouse embryo reveal molecular bases of lineage specification and tissue patterning.

    • Guangdun Peng
    • , Shengbao Suo
    • , Guizhong Cui
    • , Fang Yu
    • , Ran Wang
    • , Jun Chen
    • , Shirui Chen
    • , Zhiwen Liu
    • , Guoyu Chen
    • , Yun Qian
    • , Patrick P. L. Tam
    • , Jing-Dong J. Han
    •  & Naihe Jing
  • Letter |

    Enzymatic cleavage within ubiquitin molecules followed by quantitative mass-spectrometry simplifies complex ubiquitin chains and enables mapping of polyubiquitin architectures.

    • Kirby N. Swatek
    • , Joanne L. Usher
    • , Anja F. Kueck
    • , Christina Gladkova
    • , Tycho E. T. Mevissen
    • , Jonathan N. Pruneda
    • , Tim Skern
    •  & David Komander
  • Letter |

    Loss of p53 in mouse models of breast cancer leads to activation of WNT signalling, which promotes metastatic spread by inducing systemic neutrophilic inflammation.

    • Max D. Wellenstein
    • , Seth B. Coffelt
    • , Danique E. M. Duits
    • , Martine H. van Miltenburg
    • , Maarten Slagter
    • , Iris de Rink
    • , Linda Henneman
    • , Sjors M. Kas
    • , Stefan Prekovic
    • , Cheei-Sing Hau
    • , Kim Vrijland
    • , Anne Paulien Drenth
    • , Renske de Korte-Grimmerink
    • , Eva Schut
    • , Ingrid van der Heijden
    • , Wilbert Zwart
    • , Lodewyk F. A. Wessels
    • , Ton N. Schumacher
    • , Jos Jonkers
    •  & Karin E. de Visser
  • Letter |

    RNA polymerase II with a hypophosphorylated C-terminal domain preferentially incorporates into mediator condensates, and with a hyperphosphorylated C-terminal domain into splicing-factor condensates, revealing phosphorylation as a regulatory mechanism in condensate preference.

    • Yang Eric Guo
    • , John C. Manteiga
    • , Jonathan E. Henninger
    • , Benjamin R. Sabari
    • , Alessandra Dall’Agnese
    • , Nancy M. Hannett
    • , Jan-Hendrik Spille
    • , Lena K. Afeyan
    • , Alicia V. Zamudio
    • , Krishna Shrinivas
    • , Brian J. Abraham
    • , Ann Boija
    • , Tim-Michael Decker
    • , Jenna K. Rimel
    • , Charli B. Fant
    • , Tong Ihn Lee
    • , Ibrahim I. Cisse
    • , Phillip A. Sharp
    • , Dylan J. Taatjes
    •  & Richard A. Young

Amendments & Corrections

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