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Current Issue of Nature


Volume 560 Issue 7720, 30 August 2018

Volume 560 Issue 7720, 30 August 2018

Volume 560 Issue 7720

Lean and green

The green revolution of the 1960s helped to boost agriculture through the creation of high-yield cereal crops. But these elite crops, known as green revolution varieties (GRVs), have a problem: they are poor at using nitrogen and so require high amounts of environmentally damaging fertilizer to reach their full potential. In this week’s issue, Xiangdong Fu and his colleagues reveal that boosting the activity of the protein GRF4 improves the plants’ nitrogen usage while maintaining their high yield. They suggest that applying this result in breeding strategies for GRVs could contribute to the drive for sustainable agriculture.

Cover image: Chanwity/Getty

This Week

News in Focus

Comment

Careers

Futures

  • Futures |

    The possibilities are endless.

    • Judy Helfrich

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Understanding how earthquakes interact is key to reliable earthquake forecasting. A machine-learning study reveals how the stress change induced by earthquakes at geological faults affects these interactions.

    • Gregory C. Beroza
  • News & Views |

    Whole-genome sequencing reveals the duplication of a regulatory region, called an enhancer, of the AR gene in treatment-resistant human prostate cancers. The finding shows the importance of analysing non-protein-coding regions of DNA.

    • Kellie A. Cotter
    •  & Mark A. Rubin
  • News & Views |

    Monkeys genetically engineered to lack the gene SIRT6 die a few hours after birth, displaying severe growth defects. This finding reveals a previously unknown role for the SIRT6 protein in primate development.

    • Shoshana Naiman
    •  & Haim Y. Cohen
  • News & Views |

    The enzyme RNA polymerase II, which transcribes DNA, pauses early in transcription and awaits signals to continue. High-resolution structures reveal how it is stopped and efficiently restarted.

    • Karen Adelman
    •  & Telmo Henriques
  • News & Views |

    The gravitational constant, G, which governs the strength of gravitational interactions, is hard to measure accurately. Two independent determinations of G have been made that have the smallest uncertainties so far.

    • Stephan Schlamminger
  • News & Views |

    What Nature was saying 50 and 100 years ago.

  • News & Views |

    Manipulation of the transcription factor OsGRF4 can improve the efficiency with which some high-yielding cereal crops use nitrogen. This discovery has implications for sustainable agriculture.

    • Fanmiao Wang
    •  & Makoto Matsuoka
  • Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures, their main operation principles and their implementation in integrated photonic devices are reviewed.

    • Pavel Cheben
    • , Robert Halir
    • , Jens H. Schmid
    • , Harry A. Atwater
    •  & David R. Smith
  • Review Article |

    The rapid development of cell culture and animal models has facilitated a new understanding of ZIKV biology and made it possible to generate multiple ZIKV vaccine candidates, which are advancing through clinical trials.

    • Theodore C. Pierson
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Articles

  • Article |

    The Newtonian gravitational constant is measured with two independent methods, yielding results with relative standard uncertainties of 11.6 parts per million—the lowest uncertainty reported until now.

    • Qing Li
    • , Chao Xue
    • , Jian-Ping Liu
    • , Jun-Fei Wu
    • , Shan-Qing Yang
    • , Cheng-Gang Shao
    • , Li-Di Quan
    • , Wen-Hai Tan
    • , Liang-Cheng Tu
    • , Qi Liu
    • , Hao Xu
    • , Lin-Xia Liu
    • , Qing-Lan Wang
    • , Zhong-Kun Hu
    • , Ze-Bing Zhou
    • , Peng-Shun Luo
    • , Shu-Chao Wu
    • , Vadim Milyukov
    •  & Jun Luo
  • Article |

    Stimulating the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens in wild-type mice promotes sociability, and rescues deficits in social behaviours in a mouse model of autism.

    • Jessica J. Walsh
    • , Daniel J. Christoffel
    • , Boris D. Heifets
    • , Gabriel A. Ben-Dor
    • , Aslihan Selimbeyoglu
    • , Lin W. Hung
    • , Karl Deisseroth
    •  & Robert C. Malenka
  • Article |

    The balance of DELLA and GRF4 proteins in plants ensures the co-regulation of growth with metabolism and tipping this balance towards GRF4 leads to higher efficiency of nitrogen use.

    • Shan Li
    • , Yonghang Tian
    • , Kun Wu
    • , Yafeng Ye
    • , Jianping Yu
    • , Jianqing Zhang
    • , Qian Liu
    • , Mengyun Hu
    • , Hui Li
    • , Yiping Tong
    • , Nicholas P. Harberd
    •  & Xiangdong Fu
  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a paused transcription elongation complex of RNA polymerase II bound to DRB sensitivity-inducing factor and negative elongation factor is reported at 3.2 Å resolution.

    • Seychelle M. Vos
    • , Lucas Farnung
    • , Henning Urlaub
    •  & Patrick Cramer
  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of an activated transcription elongation complex of RNA polymerase II bound to DRB sensitivity-inducing factor and the elongation factors PAF1 complex and SPT6 is reported at 3.1 Å resolution.

    • Seychelle M. Vos
    • , Lucas Farnung
    • , Marc Boehning
    • , Christoph Wigge
    • , Andreas Linden
    • , Henning Urlaub
    •  & Patrick Cramer
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    The molecular gas in the inner kiloparsec of a submillimetre-bright galaxy is clumpy and gravitationally unstable, collapsing to form stars at a rate that will deplete the gas in about 100 million years.

    • K. Tadaki
    • , D. Iono
    • , M. S. Yun
    • , I. Aretxaga
    • , B. Hatsukade
    • , D. H. Hughes
    • , S. Ikarashi
    • , T. Izumi
    • , R. Kawabe
    • , K. Kohno
    • , M. Lee
    • , Y. Matsuda
    • , K. Nakanishi
    • , T. Saito
    • , Y. Tamura
    • , J. Ueda
    • , H. Umehata
    • , G. W. Wilson
    • , T. Michiyama
    • , M. Ando
    •  & P. Kamieneski
  • Letter |

    Electron-scattering experiments reveal that the fraction of high-momentum protons in medium-to-heavy nuclei increases considerably with neutron excess, whereas that of high-momentum neutrons decreases slightly, in contrast to shell-model predictions.

    • M. Duer
    • , O. Hen
    • , E. Piasetzky
    • , H. Hakobyan
    • , L. B. Weinstein
    • , M. Braverman
    • , E. O. Cohen
    • , D. Higinbotham
    • , K. P. Adhikari
    • , S. Adhikari
    • , M. J. Amaryan
    • , J. Arrington
    • , A. Ashkenazi
    • , J. Ball
    • , I. Balossino
    • , L. Barion
    • , M. Battaglieri
    • , V. Batourine
    • , A. Beck
    • , I. Bedlinskiy
    • , A. S. Biselli
    • , S. Boiarinov
    • , W. J. Briscoe
    • , W. K. Brooks
    • , S. Bueltmann
    • , D. Bulumulla
    • , V. D. Burkert
    • , F. Cao
    • , D. S. Carman
    • , A. Celentano
    • , G. Charles
    • , T. Chetry
    • , G. Ciullo
    • , L. Clark
    • , B. A. Clary
    • , P. L. Cole
    • , M. Contalbrigo
    • , O. Cortes
    • , V. Crede
    • , R. Cruz-Torres
    • , A. D’Angelo
    • , N. Dashyan
    • , R. De Vita
    • , E. De Sanctis
    • , M. Defurne
    • , A. Deur
    • , C. Djalali
    • , G. Dodge
    • , R. Dupre
    • , H. Egiyan
    • , A. El Alaoui
    • , L. El Fassi
    • , P. Eugenio
    • , R. Fersch
    • , A. Filippi
    • , T. A. Forest
    • , G. Gavalian
    • , Y. Ghandilyan
    • , S. Gilad
    • , G. P. Gilfoyle
    • , K. L. Giovanetti
    • , F. X. Girod
    • , E. Golovatch
    • , R. W. Gothe
    • , K. A. Griffoen
    • , L. Guo
    • , N. Harrison
    • , M. Hattawy
    • , F. Hauenstein
    • , K. Hafidi
    • , K. Hicks
    • , M. Holtrop
    • , C. E. Hyde
    • , Y. Ilieva
    • , D. G. Ireland
    • , B. S. Ishkhanov
    • , E. L. Isupov
    • , K. Joo
    • , M. L. Kabir
    • , D. Keller
    • , G. Khachatryan
    • , M. Khachatryan
    • , M. Khandaker
    • , A. Kim
    • , W. Kim
    • , A. Klein
    • , F. J. Klein
    • , I. Korover
    • , S. E. Kuhn
    • , L. Lanza
    • , G. Laskaris
    • , P. Lenisa
    • , K. Livingston
    • , I. J. D. MacGregor
    • , C. Marchand
    • , N. Markov
    • , B. McKinnon
    • , S. Mey-Tal Beck
    • , T. Mineeva
    • , M. Mirazita
    • , V. Mokeev
    • , R. A. Montgomery
    • , A. Movsisyan
    • , C. Munoz-Camacho
    • , B. Mustapha
    • , S. Nadeeshani
    • , P. Nadel-Turonski
    • , S. Niccolai
    • , G. Niculescu
    • , M. Osipenko
    • , A. I. Ostrovidov
    • , M. Paolone
    • , E. Pasyuk
    • , M. Patsyuk
    • , A. Papadopoulou
    • , K. Park
    • , D. Payette
    • , W. Phelps
    • , O. Pogorelko
    • , J. Poudel
    • , J. W. Price
    • , S. Procureur
    • , Y. Prok
    • , D. Protopopescu
    • , M. Ripani
    • , A. Rizzo
    • , G. Rosner
    • , P. Rossi
    • , F. Sabatié
    • , A. Schmidt
    • , C. Salgado
    • , B. A. Schmookler
    • , R. A. Schumacher
    • , E. P. Segarra
    • , Y. G. Sharabian
    • , G. D. Smith
    • , D. Sokhan
    • , N. Sparveris
    • , S. Stepanyan
    • , S. Strauch
    • , M. Taiuti
    • , J. A. Tan
    • , M. Ungaro
    • , H. Voskanyan
    • , E. Voutier
    • , D. P. Watts
    • , X. Wei
    • , N. Zachariou
    • , J. Zhang
    • , X. Zheng
    •  & Z. W. Zhao
  • Letter |

    The domain-wall structure and dynamics are found to enhance, rather than inhibit, the high-frequency performance of an intrinsically tunable material, obtaining ultralow loss and exceptional frequency selectivity.

    • Zongquan Gu
    • , Shishir Pandya
    • , Atanu Samanta
    • , Shi Liu
    • , Geoffrey Xiao
    • , Cedric J. G. Meyers
    • , Anoop R. Damodaran
    • , Haim Barak
    • , Arvind Dasgupta
    • , Sahar Saremi
    • , Alessia Polemi
    • , Liyan Wu
    • , Adrian A. Podpirka
    • , Alexandria Will-Cole
    • , Christopher J. Hawley
    • , Peter K. Davies
    • , Robert A. York
    • , Ilya Grinberg
    • , Lane W. Martin
    •  & Jonathan E. Spanier
  • Letter |

    Neural networks trained on data from about 130,000 aftershocks from around 100 large earthquakes improve predictions of the spatial distribution of aftershocks and suggest physical quantities that may control earthquake triggering.

    • Phoebe M. R. DeVries
    • , Fernanda Viégas
    • , Martin Wattenberg
    •  & Brendan J. Meade
  • Letter |

    Experimental data from, and mathematical modelling of, colonies of the clonal raider ant Ooceraea biroi demonstrate that increases in group size generate division of labour among similar individuals, increased homeostasis and higher colony fitness.

    • Y. Ulrich
    • , J. Saragosti
    • , C. K. Tokita
    • , C. E. Tarnita
    •  & D. J. C. Kronauer
  • Letter |

    Satellite data for the period 1982–2016 reveal changes in land use and land cover at global and regional scales that reflect patterns of land change indicative of a human-dominated Earth system.

    • Xiao-Peng Song
    • , Matthew C. Hansen
    • , Stephen V. Stehman
    • , Peter V. Potapov
    • , Alexandra Tyukavina
    • , Eric F. Vermote
    •  & John R. Townshend
  • Letter |

    Integrated analyses of multiple cohorts are used to obtain a better understanding of the immune state of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and factors that mediate and/or predict transitions from latent infection to active disease.

    • Roshni Roy Chowdhury
    • , Francesco Vallania
    • , Qiantian Yang
    • , Cesar Joel Lopez Angel
    • , Fatoumatta Darboe
    • , Adam Penn-Nicholson
    • , Virginie Rozot
    • , Elisa Nemes
    • , Stephanus T. Malherbe
    • , Katharina Ronacher
    • , Gerhard Walzl
    • , Willem Hanekom
    • , Mark M. Davis
    • , Jill Winter
    • , Xinchun Chen
    • , Thomas J. Scriba
    • , Purvesh Khatri
    •  & Yueh-hsiu Chien
  • Letter |

    Single-cell RNA sequencing is used to characterize cell types in nasal tissues from human patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, revealing a role for tissue stem cells in allergic inflammatory memory.

    • Jose Ordovas-Montanes
    • , Daniel F. Dwyer
    • , Sarah K. Nyquist
    • , Kathleen M. Buchheit
    • , Marko Vukovic
    • , Chaarushena Deb
    • , Marc H. Wadsworth II
    • , Travis K. Hughes
    • , Samuel W. Kazer
    • , Eri Yoshimoto
    • , Katherine N. Cahill
    • , Neil Bhattacharyya
    • , Howard R. Katz
    • , Bonnie Berger
    • , Tanya M. Laidlaw
    • , Joshua A. Boyce
    • , Nora A. Barrett
    •  & Alex K. Shalek
  • Letter |

    The Ras-related GTPase RAP2 is a key intracellular signal transducer by which extracellular matrix rigidity controls mechanosensitive cellular activities through YAP and TAZ.

    • Zhipeng Meng
    • , Yunjiang Qiu
    • , Kimberly C. Lin
    • , Aditya Kumar
    • , Jesse K. Placone
    • , Cao Fang
    • , Kuei-Chun Wang
    • , Shicong Lu
    • , Margaret Pan
    • , Audrey W. Hong
    • , Toshiro Moroishi
    • , Min Luo
    • , Steven W. Plouffe
    • , Yarui Diao
    • , Zhen Ye
    • , Hyun Woo Park
    • , Xiaoqiong Wang
    • , Fa-Xing Yu
    • , Shu Chien
    • , Cun-Yu Wang
    • , Bing Ren
    • , Adam J. Engler
    •  & Kun-Liang Guan
  • Letter |

    A cynomolgus monkey model deficient in SIRT6 protein exhibits severe retardation in prenatal development, in which neuronal differentiation is delayed by activation of the H19 long non-coding RNA.

    • Weiqi Zhang
    • , Haifeng Wan
    • , Guihai Feng
    • , Jing Qu
    • , Jiaqiang Wang
    • , Yaobin Jing
    • , Ruotong Ren
    • , Zunpeng Liu
    • , Linlin Zhang
    • , Zhiguo Chen
    • , Shuyan Wang
    • , Yong Zhao
    • , Zhaoxia Wang
    • , Yun Yuan
    • , Qi Zhou
    • , Wei Li
    • , Guang-Hui Liu
    •  & Baoyang Hu
  • Letter |

    The crystal structure of the Frizzled 4 receptor transmembrane domain is reported to a resolution of 2.4 Å in a ligand-free state.

    • Shifan Yang
    • , Yiran Wu
    • , Ting-Hai Xu
    • , Parker W. de Waal
    • , Yuanzheng He
    • , Mengchen Pu
    • , Yuxiang Chen
    • , Zachary J. DeBruine
    • , Bingjie Zhang
    • , Saheem A. Zaidi
    • , Petr Popov
    • , Yu Guo
    • , Gye Won Han
    • , Yang Lu
    • , Kelly Suino-Powell
    • , Shaowei Dong
    • , Kaleeckal G. Harikumar
    • , Laurence J. Miller
    • , Vsevolod Katritch
    • , H. Eric Xu
    • , Wenqing Shui
    • , Raymond C. Stevens
    • , Karsten Melcher
    • , Suwen Zhao
    •  & Fei Xu

Amendments & Corrections