This page is brought to you by Brian Golding (Golding@McMaster.CA) and is copied locally here to speed your access. To go to the original page (should you find something interesting or should you wish to follow links) click on

Current Issue of Nature


Volume 572 Issue 7767, 1 August 2019

Volume 572 Issue 7767, 1 August 2019

Dual control

There are two main approaches to developing artificial general intelligence. One is rooted in neuroscience, and attempts to construct circuits that closely mimic the brain. The other is grounded in computer science, and uses computers to execute machine-learning algorithms. In this week’s issue, Luping Shi and his colleagues reveal the Tianjic chip — an electronic chip that integrates the two approaches into one hybrid platform. The Tianjic chip has multiple functional cores that are readily reconfigurable, enabling it to accommodate both machine-learning algorithms and brain-inspired circuits. The researchers demonstrate the potential of this approach by incorporating one of their chips into a riderless autonomous bicycle, which can self-balance, is voice controllable and can detect and avoid obstacles, all as a result of the Tianjic chip’s simultaneous processing of versatile algorithms and models.

Cover image: Center for Brain-Inspired Computing Research, Tsinghua University

This Week

News in Focus

Comment

Technology

    Toolbox

  • Toolbox |

    Researchers often find themselves coding algorithms in one programming language, only to have to rewrite them in a faster one. An up-and-coming language could be the answer.

    • Jeffrey M. Perkel

Careers

Futures

  • Futures |

    Welcome to the curiosity shop.

    • Mark Vandersluis

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Human activities produce tiny airborne particles called aerosols. The discovery that the average impact of these aerosols on the water content of low-level clouds is minimal will lead to more-reliable models of future climate.

    • Anna Possner
  • News & Views |

    Organ damage is often detected late, when treatment options are limited. The use of artificial intelligence to continuously monitor a patient’s medical data can identify people at risk of imminent kidney injury.

    • Eric J. Topol
  • News & Views |

    A goal of tissue engineers is to use 3D printers to assemble living filaments into tissues that then transform into more-mature forms through predictable shape changes. A study of single living filaments provides a basis for this approach.

    • Zev Gartner
    •  & Alex Hughes
  • News & Views |

    A fresh approach to suppressing the Asian tiger mosquito, a highly invasive species that transmits disease-causing viruses, has been used to nearly eradicate these insects from two test sites in China.

    • Peter A. Armbruster
  • News & Views |

    When two graphene sheets are stacked so that there is a specific angle between them, fascinating properties reminiscent of high-temperature superconductors emerge. Spectroscopy now provides insights into this behaviour.

    • Mathias S. Scheurer
  • Matters Arising

  • Reviews

  • Review Article |

    A Review of advances in memory-editing techniques in humans suggests that these techniques are advancing beyond science fiction and could hold promise for translation into clinical practice.

    • Elizabeth A. Phelps
    •  & Stefan G. Hofmann
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Satellite data for cloud tracks downwind of major pollution sources show a relatively small global average decrease in cloud water caused by anthropogenic aerosols, invalidating claims that aerosol-induced effects contribute substantially to climate cooling.

    • Velle Toll
    • , Matthew Christensen
    • , Johannes Quaas
    •  & Nicolas Bellouin
  • Article |

    A field trial succeeded in eliminating populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus through inundative mass release of incompatible Wolbachia-infected males, which were also irradiated to sterilize any accidentally-released females, and so prevent population replacement.

    • Xiaoying Zheng
    • , Dongjing Zhang
    • , Yongjun Li
    • , Cui Yang
    • , Yu Wu
    • , Xiao Liang
    • , Yongkang Liang
    • , Xiaoling Pan
    • , Linchao Hu
    • , Qiang Sun
    • , Xiaohua Wang
    • , Yingyang Wei
    • , Jian Zhu
    • , Wei Qian
    • , Ziqiang Yan
    • , Andrew G. Parker
    • , Jeremie R. L. Gilles
    • , Kostas Bourtzis
    • , Jérémy Bouyer
    • , Moxun Tang
    • , Bo Zheng
    • , Jianshe Yu
    • , Julian Liu
    • , Jiajia Zhuang
    • , Zhigang Hu
    • , Meichun Zhang
    • , Jun-Tao Gong
    • , Xiao-Yue Hong
    • , Zhoubing Zhang
    • , Lifeng Lin
    • , Qiyong Liu
    • , Zhiyong Hu
    • , Zhongdao Wu
    • , Luke Anthony Baton
    • , Ary A. Hoffmann
    •  & Zhiyong Xi
  • Article |

    Clearance of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid in mice takes place via meningeal lymphatic vessels at the base of the skull; both drainage and the integrity of these vessels deteriorate with age.

    • Ji Hoon Ahn
    • , Hyunsoo Cho
    • , Jun-Hee Kim
    • , Shin Heun Kim
    • , Je-Seok Ham
    • , Intae Park
    • , Sang Heon Suh
    • , Seon Pyo Hong
    • , Joo-Hye Song
    • , Young-Kwon Hong
    • , Yong Jeong
    • , Sung-Hong Park
    •  & Gou Young Koh
  • Article |

    Sequencing data from the developing cerebellum are compared with bulk sequencing data from paediatric tumours, providing insights into their potential origins and suggesting that many cerebellar tumours have their origins early in utero.

    • Maria C. Vladoiu
    • , Ibrahim El-Hamamy
    • , Laura K. Donovan
    • , Hamza Farooq
    • , Borja L. Holgado
    • , Yogi Sundaravadanam
    • , Vijay Ramaswamy
    • , Liam D. Hendrikse
    • , Sachin Kumar
    • , Stephen C. Mack
    • , John J. Y. Lee
    • , Vernon Fong
    • , Kyle Juraschka
    • , David Przelicki
    • , Antony Michealraj
    • , Patryk Skowron
    • , Betty Luu
    • , Hiromichi Suzuki
    • , A. Sorana Morrissy
    • , Florence M. G. Cavalli
    • , Livia Garzia
    • , Craig Daniels
    • , Xiaochong Wu
    • , Maleeha A. Qazi
    • , Sheila K. Singh
    • , Jennifer A. Chan
    • , Marco A. Marra
    • , David Malkin
    • , Peter Dirks
    • , Lawrence Heisler
    • , Trevor Pugh
    • , Karen Ng
    • , Faiyaz Notta
    • , Eric M. Thompson
    • , Claudia L. Kleinman
    • , Alexandra L. Joyner
    • , Nada Jabado
    • , Lincoln Stein
    •  & Michael D. Taylor
  • Article |

    Characterization of medulloblastoma tissues using single-cell transcriptomics shows that the different molecular subtypes consist of distinct developmental phenotypes.

    • Volker Hovestadt
    • , Kyle S. Smith
    • , Laure Bihannic
    • , Mariella G. Filbin
    • , McKenzie L. Shaw
    • , Alicia Baumgartner
    • , John C. DeWitt
    • , Andrew Groves
    • , Lisa Mayr
    • , Hannah R. Weisman
    • , Alyssa R. Richman
    • , Marni E. Shore
    • , Liliana Goumnerova
    • , Celeste Rosencrance
    • , Robert A. Carter
    • , Timothy N. Phoenix
    • , Jennifer L. Hadley
    • , Yiai Tong
    • , Jim Houston
    • , Richard A. Ashmun
    • , Michael DeCuypere
    • , Tanvi Sharma
    • , Diane Flasch
    • , Antonina Silkov
    • , Keith L. Ligon
    • , Scott L. Pomeroy
    • , Miguel N. Rivera
    • , Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen
    • , Jessica M. Rusert
    • , Robert J. Wechsler-Reya
    • , Xiao-Nan Li
    • , Andreas Peyrl
    • , Johannes Gojo
    • , Dominik Kirchhofer
    • , Daniela Lötsch
    • , Thomas Czech
    • , Christian Dorfer
    • , Christine Haberler
    • , Rene Geyeregger
    • , Angela Halfmann
    • , Charles Gawad
    • , John Easton
    • , Stefan M. Pfister
    • , Aviv Regev
    • , Amar Gajjar
    • , Brent A. Orr
    • , Irene Slavc
    • , Giles W. Robinson
    • , Bradley E. Bernstein
    • , Mario L. Suvà
    •  & Paul A. Northcott
  • Article |

    Cryo-electron microscopy structures of human neurotensin receptor 1 in complex with Gi1 protein and the agonist JMV449 reveal a non-canonical state that may represent an intermediate form in G-protein activation.

    • Hideaki E. Kato
    • , Yan Zhang
    • , Hongli Hu
    • , Carl-Mikael Suomivuori
    • , Francois Marie Ngako Kadji
    • , Junken Aoki
    • , Kaavya Krishna Kumar
    • , Rasmus Fonseca
    • , Daniel Hilger
    • , Weijiao Huang
    • , Naomi R. Latorraca
    • , Asuka Inoue
    • , Ron O. Dror
    • , Brian K. Kobilka
    •  & Georgios Skiniotis
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Number-state superpositions of the harmonic motion of a trapped beryllium ion are used to measure the oscillation frequency with quantum-enhanced sensitivity, achieving a mode-frequency uncertainty of about 10−6.

    • Katherine C. McCormick
    • , Jonas Keller
    • , Shaun C. Burd
    • , David J. Wineland
    • , Andrew C. Wilson
    •  & Dietrich Leibfried
  • Letter |

    Nonlinear optical measurements in a two-dimensional electron system embedded in an optical cavity show enhanced polariton–polariton interactions in the fractional quantum Hall regime.

    • Patrick Knüppel
    • , Sylvain Ravets
    • , Martin Kroner
    • , Stefan Fält
    • , Werner Wegscheider
    •  & Atac Imamoglu
  • Letter |

    Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy is used to map the atomic-scale electronic structure of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, finding multiple signatures of electron correlations and thus providing insight into the sought-after mechanism behind superconductivity in graphene.

    • Alexander Kerelsky
    • , Leo J. McGilly
    • , Dante M. Kennes
    • , Lede Xian
    • , Matthew Yankowitz
    • , Shaowen Chen
    • , K. Watanabe
    • , T. Taniguchi
    • , James Hone
    • , Cory Dean
    • , Angel Rubio
    •  & Abhay N. Pasupathy
  • Letter |

    Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and extended-Hubbard-model cluster calculations reveal that magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene is a strongly correlated electron system, similar to other unconventional superconductors.

    • Yonglong Xie
    • , Biao Lian
    • , Berthold Jäck
    • , Xiaomeng Liu
    • , Cheng-Li Chiu
    • , Kenji Watanabe
    • , Takashi Taniguchi
    • , B. Andrei Bernevig
    •  & Ali Yazdani
  • Letter |

    The ‘Tianjic’ hybrid electronic chip combines neuroscience-oriented and computer-science-oriented approaches to artificial general intelligence, demonstrated by controlling an unmanned bicycle.

    • Jing Pei
    • , Lei Deng
    • , Sen Song
    • , Mingguo Zhao
    • , Youhui Zhang
    • , Shuang Wu
    • , Guanrui Wang
    • , Zhe Zou
    • , Zhenzhi Wu
    • , Wei He
    • , Feng Chen
    • , Ning Deng
    • , Si Wu
    • , Yu Wang
    • , Yujie Wu
    • , Zheyu Yang
    • , Cheng Ma
    • , Guoqi Li
    • , Wentao Han
    • , Huanglong Li
    • , Huaqiang Wu
    • , Rong Zhao
    • , Yuan Xie
    •  & Luping Shi
  • Letter |

    Trace-element analysis of teeth from the hominin Australopithecus africanus, dated to 2.6–2.1 million years ago, sheds light on the weaning sequence of this species and its responses to seasonal food scarcity

    • Renaud Joannes-Boyau
    • , Justin W. Adams
    • , Christine Austin
    • , Manish Arora
    • , Ian Moffat
    • , Andy I. R. Herries
    • , Matthew P. Tonge
    • , Stefano Benazzi
    • , Alistair R. Evans
    • , Ottmar Kullmer
    • , Stephen Wroe
    • , Anthony Dosseto
    •  & Luca Fiorenza
  • Letter |

    A deep learning approach that predicts the risk of acute kidney injury may help to identify patients at risk of health deterioration within a time window that enables early treatment.

    • Nenad Tomašev
    • , Xavier Glorot
    • , Jack W. Rae
    • , Michal Zielinski
    • , Harry Askham
    • , Andre Saraiva
    • , Anne Mottram
    • , Clemens Meyer
    • , Suman Ravuri
    • , Ivan Protsyuk
    • , Alistair Connell
    • , Cían O. Hughes
    • , Alan Karthikesalingam
    • , Julien Cornebise
    • , Hugh Montgomery
    • , Geraint Rees
    • , Chris Laing
    • , Clifton R. Baker
    • , Kelly Peterson
    • , Ruth Reeves
    • , Demis Hassabis
    • , Dominic King
    • , Mustafa Suleyman
    • , Trevor Back
    • , Christopher Nielson
    • , Joseph R. Ledsam
    •  & Shakir Mohamed
  • Letter |

    When Lama1 was upregulated using CRISPR and a catalytically inactive Cas9 in a mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A, apparent hindlimb paralysis, muscle fibrosis and nerve myelination defects were ameliorated in symptomatic mice.

    • Dwi U. Kemaladewi
    • , Prabhpreet S. Bassi
    • , Steven Erwood
    • , Dhekra Al-Basha
    • , Kinga I. Gawlik
    • , Kyle Lindsay
    • , Elzbieta Hyatt
    • , Rebekah Kember
    • , Kara M. Place
    • , Ryan M. Marks
    • , Madeleine Durbeej
    • , Steven A. Prescott
    • , Evgueni A. Ivakine
    •  & Ronald D. Cohn
  • Letter |

    The cyclic nucleotide-gated channel proteins CNGC2 and CNGC4 form a calcium channel in Arabidopsis; this channel is blocked by calmodulin in the resting state but is phosphorylated and activated upon pathogen attack, triggering an increase in cytosolic calcium levels.

    • Wang Tian
    • , Congcong Hou
    • , Zhijie Ren
    • , Chao Wang
    • , Fugeng Zhao
    • , Douglas Dahlbeck
    • , Songping Hu
    • , Liying Zhang
    • , Qi Niu
    • , Legong Li
    • , Brian J. Staskawicz
    •  & Sheng Luan
  • Letter |

    ORBIT (origami-rotor-based imaging and tracking) is used to track the DNA rotation that results from DNA unwinding by RecBCD helicase and transcription by RNAP at a single-molecule scale and millisecond time resolution.

    • Pallav Kosuri
    • , Benjamin D. Altheimer
    • , Mingjie Dai
    • , Peng Yin
    •  & Xiaowei Zhuang

Amendments & Corrections

  • Author Correction |

    • Marco De Cecco
    • , Takahiro Ito
    • , Anna P. Petrashen
    • , Amy E. Elias
    • , Nicholas J. Skvir
    • , Steven W. Criscione
    • , Alberto Caligiana
    • , Greta Brocculi
    • , Emily M. Adney
    • , Jef D. Boeke
    • , Oanh Le
    • , Christian Beauséjour
    • , Jayakrishna Ambati
    • , Kameshwari Ambati
    • , Matthew Simon
    • , Andrei Seluanov
    • , Vera Gorbunova
    • , P. Eline Slagboom
    • , Stephen L. Helfand
    • , Nicola Neretti
    •  & John M. Sedivy
  • Author Correction |

    • Anastasia N. Tikhonova
    • , Igor Dolgalev
    • , Hai Hu
    • , Kishor K. Sivaraj
    • , Edlira Hoxha
    • , Álvaro Cuesta-Domínguez
    • , Sandra Pinho
    • , Ilseyar Akhmetzyanova
    • , Jie Gao
    • , Matthew Witkowski
    • , Maria Guillamot
    • , Michael C. Gutkin
    • , Yutong Zhang
    • , Christian Marier
    • , Catherine Diefenbach
    • , Stavroula Kousteni
    • , Adriana Heguy
    • , Hua Zhong
    • , David R. Fooksman
    • , Jason M. Butler
    • , Aris Economides
    • , Paul S. Frenette
    • , Ralf H. Adams
    • , Rahul Satija
    • , Aristotelis Tsirigos
    •  & Iannis Aifantis
  • Author Correction |

    • François Bertucci
    • , Charlotte K. Y. Ng
    • , Anne Patsouris
    • , Nathalie Droin
    • , Salvatore Piscuoglio
    • , Nadine Carbuccia
    • , Jean Charles Soria
    • , Alicia Tran Dien
    • , Yahia Adnani
    • , Maud Kamal
    • , Séverine Garnier
    • , Guillaume Meurice
    • , Marta Jimenez
    • , Semih Dogan
    • , Benjamin Verret
    • , Max Chaffanet
    • , Thomas Bachelot
    • , Mario Campone
    • , Claudia Lefeuvre
    • , Herve Bonnefoi
    • , Florence Dalenc
    • , Alexandra Jacquet
    • , Maria R. De Filippo
    • , Naveen Babbar
    • , Daniel Birnbaum
    • , Thomas Filleron
    • , Christophe Le Tourneau
    •  & Fabrice André
Newsletter Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing