Subject: PLOS Biology Volume 15(5) May 2017 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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New Articles in PLOS Biology

PUBLISHED: May 01, 2017 to May 31, 2017

Primers

Ancient bacteria'amoeba relationships and pathogenic animal bacteria

The bacteria that cause kennel cough, Bordetella bronchiseptica, not only proliferate in mammalian respiratory systems, but can also do so in social amoebae, tracking them through their entire social cycle. Read the associated Research Article here.

A question of fate

Pharmacogenomics is emerging as a new tool for directing endogenous neural stem cells toward specific fate. This Primer reflects on a study that used pharmacogenomics to direct subventricular stem cells to oligodendrocytic and glutamatergic lineages in both healthy and hypoxic states, paving the way for using endogenous stem cells for brain repair. Read the related Research Article here.

Essay

AEDT: A new concept for ecological dynamics in the ever-changing world

Continuous environmental change means that populations and communities cannot be at static equilibria; however they may follow asymptotic environmentally-determined trajectories, allowing ecological analysis and prediction as climate changes.

Perspective

The co-production of what? Knowledge, values, and social relations in health care

While "co-production" (collaboration between agencies) promises a radical transformation of health care, it poses crucial challenges for participants and policy-makers and has some unforeseen implications for the definition of value, participation, and knowledge production in health services and research.

Community Page

1.2 million kids and counting'Mobile science laboratories drive student interest in STEM

A survey of the Mobile Laboratory Coalition revealed that collectively these programs have provided hands-on science activities to over 1,200,000 students and 16,000 teachers across the US.

Open Highlights

An appetite for understanding appetite

In an effort to understand the mechanisms that drive hunger, trigger satiety, and modulate appetite, scientists often turn to invertebrate model organisms. This Open Highlight explores recent research into how animals combine information from the outside world and from within their own bodies to decide what they should eat. Find the related collection here.

Research Articles

Effects of stochasticity and division of labor in toxin production on two-strain bacterial competition in Escherichia coli

Stochastic processes in ColE2 toxin production dynamics influence bacterial competition in two ways; first, they shape the initial conditions and second, they determine the fraction of toxin producers ' two important determinants of competition.

Smek promotes corticogenesis through regulating Mbd3's stability and Mbd3/NuRD complex recruitment to genes associated with neurogenesis

Crosstalk between genetic and epigenetic components involving interactions between Smek and Mbd3 plays a crucial role in determining cell fate of neural stem cells during cortical neurogenesis in the developing brain.

Auditory motion-specific mechanisms in the primate brain

A neuroimaging study in awake macaques provides the first demonstration that auditory motion is not simply deduced from changes in spatial location but relies on motion-specific mechanisms.

Phenotypic heterogeneity promotes adaptive evolution

A study in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that phenotypic heterogeneity shapes evolutionary trajectories and facilitates evolutionary rescue from a deteriorating environmental stress by enlarging the beneficial effects of mutations.

A coordinated DNA damage response promotes adult quiescent neural stem cell activation

After X-ray irradiation, adult neural progenitor cells undergo apoptosis, arrest proliferation and differentiate, activating quiescent stem cells. By contrast, progenitor cells in neonatal mice largely maintain proliferation without quiescent stem cell activation.

Evolutionary restoration of fertility in an interspecies hybrid yeast, by whole-genome duplication after a failed mating-type switch

A young hybrid yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces parabailii, retraces the evolutionary steps hypothesized to have caused whole-genome duplication in an ancestor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Alteration of protein function by a silent polymorphism linked to tRNA abundance

A synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism alters the structure and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) by changing the local speed of translation in a tissue- and tRNA-dependent fashion.

Metabolic and fitness determinants for in vitro growth and intestinal colonization of the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

A multidisciplinary study provides a comprehensive view of the metabolic requirements for intestinal colonization by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in industrialized countries.

The in vivo structure of biological membranes and evidence for lipid domains

A novel strategy employing isotopic labeling and neutron scattering reveals the structure of the membrane in a living cell and provides evidence for the existence of nanoscopic lipid domains, consistent with hypothesized lipid rafts.

Teaching genetics prior to teaching evolution improves evolution understanding but not acceptance

A large trial of UK secondary school pupils shows that the teaching of genetics before the teaching of evolution improves the understanding of evolution at no cost to the understanding of genetics.

Differential excitatory control of 2 parallel basket cell networks in amygdala microcircuits

Neuroanatomical and electrophysiological techniques combined with optogenetics reveal organizing principles of wiring between principal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the basal amygdala that may be a general feature of cortical networks.

Oligodendroglial myelination requires astrocyte-derived lipids

The formation of myelin membrane by oligodendrocytes in the brain is dependent on extracellular lipids derived from astrocytes and from diet.

Local introduction and heterogeneous spatial spread of dengue-suppressing Wolbachia through an urban population of Aedes aegypti

The virus-suppressing bacteria Wolbachia occur naturally in many insects and can inhibit disease spread by mosquitoes. This study shows that short-duration, local releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes can permanently modify urban mosquito populations.

Corrections

Correction: Fasting regulates EGR1 and protects from glucose- and dexamethasone-dependent sensitization to chemotherapy

Correction: Ongoing neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus mediates behavioral responses to ambiguous threat cues

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