Subject: PLOS Biology Volume 15(6) June 2017 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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New Articles in PLOS Biology

PUBLISHED: June 01, 2017 to June 30, 2017

Primers

What drives cooperative breeding?

Cooperative breeding is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. This Primer by Walter D. Koenig explores the implications of a recent study of the stepwise evolution and ecological correlates of cooperative breeding in birds. Read the related Research Article here.

The road not taken: Could stress-specific mutations lead to different evolutionary paths?

The evolutionary impact of stress-induced mutations is controversial. This Primer by Agashe explores how new evidence for stress-specific mutational spectra has implications for diverse aspects of molecular evolution. Read the Related Research article here.

The spread of Wolbachia through mosquito populations

Releasing mosquitoes infected with the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia may block disease transmission. This Primer by Francis Jiggins discusses a study in Australia that describes how Wolbachia spreads outwards in a wave through populations. Read the related Research Article.

Perspective

Identifiers for the 21st century: How to design, provision, and reuse persistent identifiers to maximize utility and impact of life science data

What qualities of persistent identifiers will ensure that large-scale data integration can be done with greatest ease and rigor? This Perspective article proposes specific actions for data providers when designing new identifiers, maintaining existing identifiers, and reusing and referencing identifiers from other datasets.

Community Pages

Wide-Open: Accelerating public data release by automating detection of overdue datasets

This Community Page article by Grechkin, Poon and Howe introduces Wide-Open, a text-mining system that automates the detection of datasets overdue for public access, and demonstrates how it led to the release of hundreds of gene expression datasets from GEO within weeks.

Practices and promises of Facebook for science outreach: Becoming a "Nerd of Trust"

Facebook may be an overlooked high-return, low-risk and easy-to-use science outreach tool in which scientists can play a valuable role in combating disinformation and increasing science literacy.

Meta-Research Article

Can cancer researchers accurately judge whether preclinical reports will reproduce?

Forecasts of replication studies conducted by the Reproducibility Project reveal that cancer biology researchers tend to overestimate the likelihood that preclinical cancer experiments will replicate the original studies.

Research Articles

Statin and rottlerin small-molecule inhibitors restrict colon cancer progression and metastasis via MACC1

In this study by Juneja, Kobelt, Schlag, Stein and colleagues, a high-throughput screening process has identified the first inhibitors of MACC1 expression for use in restricting the metastasis of colorectal cancer; the most promising inhibitors were successfully evaluated preclinically.

What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control

A decision-making study by Morel, Ulbrich and Gail characterizes how humans assess physical effort when choosing between arm movements; the results support the idea of common cost factors for both action selection and action control.

A shifting mutational landscape in 6 nutritional states: Stress-induced mutagenesis as a series of distinct stress input'mutation output relationships

Do common environmental stresses always cause altered mutation rates and spectra? This study of the bacterium Escherichia coli by Maharjan and Ferenci reveals that genetic variation is markedly dependent on the nature of the environmental stress. Read the related Primer here.

Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe

In individuals infected by HIV-1, the viral load in asymptomatic infection is highly variable. Phylogenetic methods applied to data from a large European collaboration reveal that one third of this variation is explained by viral genetic factors.

CACNA1C gene regulates behavioral strategies in operant rule learning

Computational model-based analysis reveals that knockout of the Cacna1c gene, which encodes a voltage-gated calcium channel implicated in psychiatric disorders, leads animals to adopt a different behavioral strategy on an operant learning task.

Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex

Neural recording in freely moving ferrets reveals that auditory cortex represents sound location in both head-centered (egocentric) and world-centered (allocentric) coordinate frames.

Aging, mortality, and the fast growth trade-off of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

In this study by Hidenori Nakaoka and Yuichi Wakamoto, a microfluidics approach reveals an absence of aging in old-pole cell lineages of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, with elevated mortality under fast growing conditions.

High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance

In this study by Morgan Wambaugh, Viplendra Shakya, Jessica Brown and co-workers, a novel high-throughput screen identifies small molecules that synergize with the antibiotic trimethoprim, elucidates the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions, and exploits the new mechanism to design improved treatments for Escherichia coli infections.

MAIT cells launch a rapid, robust and distinct hyperinflammatory response to bacterial superantigens and quickly acquire an anergic phenotype that impedes their cognate antimicrobial function: Defining a novel mechanism of superantigen-induced immunopathology and immunosuppression

This study by Christopher Shaler, Joshua Choi, S.M. Mansour Haeryfar and colleagues shows Mucosa-associated invariant T cells mount an excessive inflammatory response to bacterial superantigens, which results in their exhaustion and failure to participate in antimicrobial host defense.

Laminin 211 inhibits protein kinase A in Schwann cells to modulate neuregulin 1 type III-driven myelination

This study by Monica Ghidinelli, Yannick Poitelon, Maria Laura Feltri and colleagues reveals that laminin 211 can inhibit peripheral myelination by suppressing the axonal regulator neuregulin 1 typeIII, helping to explain why certain neuropathies are characterized by hypermyelination.

Family living sets the stage for cooperative breeding and ecological resilience in birds

How did cooperative breeding arise in birds? A comparative analysis by Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa and Carlos A. Botero of more than 3,000 bird species shows that family living evolved first in variable environments and helping at the nest evolved subsequently in less productive environments. Read the related Primer here.

Phosphatidylserine externalization, "necroptotic bodies" release, and phagocytosis during necroptosis

Externalization of phosphatidylserine, which is associated with release of extracellular vesicles, drives the recognition and phagocytosis of necroptotic cells to modulate inflammation.

Two different mechanisms support selective attention at different phases of training

Quantitative modeling of behavioral and EEG data recorded from human subjects over one month reveals that attentional mechanisms shift from gain to noise reduction as a function of training duration.

Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation

This study by Ryan M. Hull, Cristina Cruz, Carmen V. Jack and Jonathan Houseley shows that Yeast can stimulate changes in copy number at selected environmentally-relevant genetic loci, leading to the formation of novel adaptive alleles that enhance growth under challenging conditions.

Human cyclophilin 40 unravels neurotoxic amyloids

The chaperone Cyclophilin 40 disintegrates neurotoxic aggregates of tau protein, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, by interacting with proline-rich sites.

Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention

An electroencephalography study by Jianrong Jia, Ling Liu, Fang Fang and Huan Luo provides novel evidence that attention rhythmically samples multiple visual objects, and the sampling profile changes adaptively according to context.

Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

This behavioral and fMRI study by Seongmin A. Park, Sidney Goïame, David A. O'Connor, and Jean-Claude Dreher shows that integrating social influence with one's individual belief can be accounted for by Bayesian inference computations, in which the frontopolar cortex monitors credibility estimates of social information, and belief updates are computed in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

Chemosensory and hyperoxia circuits in C. elegans males influence sperm navigational capacity

During larval development, male Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes respond to environmental information by altering neuronal circuitry that later affects their sperms' mitochondria and navigational capacity.

Corrections

Correction: Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism

Correction: Phenotypic heterogeneity promotes adaptive evolution

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