Subject: PLOS Biology Volume 15(8) August 2017 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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New Articles in PLOS Biology

PUBLISHED: August 01, 2017 to August 31, 2017

Primer

Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making

This Primer examines recent research that identifies utility as a useful notion to formalize how effort is subjectively perceived in the context of cost-benefit analyses for movement control and for decisions between movements. Read the related Research Article here.

Research Matters

Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology

The modern scientific era offers the perfect opportunity to merge traditional (morphological) taxonomy with cutting-edge "Omics" approaches. Incorporating (rather than discarding) such historical knowledge could transform the way biological studies are conducted in the future.

Perspective

Developing international open science collaborations: Funder reflections on the Open Science Prize

It's rare for international funders to work together but the Open Science Prize brought three funders ' The National Institutes of Health, The Wellcome Trust and The Howard Hughes Medical Institute ' to do just that.

Community Page

The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe): A new repository for field and sampling event metadata associated with genetic samples

The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe-db.org) is an open access repository for the geospatial and environmental metadata directly associated with genetic data, essential to scientific reproducibility and synthesis.

Open Highlights

Understanding and overcoming antibiotic resistance

Given the importance of antibiotics to modern medicine, and the growing apprehension surrounding the threat of resistance, this Open Highlight looks at the cellular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, the evolution and spread of resistance, and techniques for combating resistance. Browse the related collection here.

Research Articles

Dynamic transcriptome changes during adipose tissue energy expenditure reveal critical roles for long noncoding RNA regulators

A comprehensive profile of lncRNA transcriptome changes during white fat browning and brown fat activation identifies lncBATE10 as a novel regulator of these biological processes.

The beneficial effects of dietary restriction on learning are distinct from its effects on longevity and mediated by depletion of a neuroinhibitory metabolite

The beneficial effects of reduced nutrient intake on enhancement of learning are not just secondary consequences of extended lifespan but are specifically due to depletion of the tryptophan metabolite (and glutamatergic antagonist) kynurenic acid.

A flagellum-specific chaperone facilitates assembly of the core type III export apparatus of the bacterial flagellum

Many bacteria move using a complex, self-assembling nanomachine, the bacterial flagellum. This study reveals that an integral-membrane chaperone, FliO, coordinates the self-assembly of the multi-component type III secretion system needed to export the building blocks of the bacterial flagellum.

Assembly and stoichiometry of the core structure of the bacterial flagellar type III export gate complex

Structural and functional analyses of the core structure of the bacterial flagellar type III export gate complex reveal novel insights into how the gate complex is formed inside the flagellar basal body MS ring.

EBV epigenetically suppresses the B cell-to-plasma cell differentiation pathway while establishing long-term latency

The Epstein Barr virus transcription factors EBNA3A and EBNA3C play a vital role in establishing viral latency in memory B cells, by epigenetically suppressing the transcription program that drives the B cell-to-plasma cell differentiation pathway.

Regulation of Gli ciliary localization and Hedgehog signaling by the PY-NLS/karyopherin-beta 2 nuclear import system

The karyopherin-2 nuclear import system regulates the targeting of the Hedgehog signaling pathway transcription factor Gli to the primary cilium, and forms a positive feedback loop.

History of antibiotic adaptation influences microbial evolutionary dynamics during subsequent treatment

A study of the human bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that different adaptation histories to antibiotics lead to distinct evolutionary dynamics of multidrug resistance, potentially informing the design of strategies to mitigate resistance and combat bacterial infections.

Fungal genome and mating system transitions facilitated by chromosomal translocations involving intercentromeric recombination

A comparative study of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus shows that chromosomal rearrangements involving centromeric regions played important roles in the evolution of fungal genomes, including the transition between different mating systems.

The ESCRT-III pathway facilitates cardiomyocyte release of cBIN1-containing microparticles

Cardiomyocyte t-tubule microfolds containing the membrane deformation protein cBIN1 recruit an ESCRT-III component to snip off and release cBIN1-containing microparticles. The released cBIN1 can be measured in blood as a marker of myocardial health.

Rictor positively regulates B cell receptor signaling by modulating actin reorganization via ezrin

During B cell receptor activation, the mTORC component Rictor regulates the phosphorylation of ezrin; loss of Rictor leads to the uncontrolled reorganization of the actin network, resulting in impaired B cell receptor signaling and antibody response.

Object segmentation controls image reconstruction from natural scenes

Converging evidence indicates that object segmentation is one and the same with feature extraction; the integrated nature of this perceptual mechanism defies current notions of separate top-down and bottom-up processes, offering a fresh view of how human vision operates on natural signals.

Different patterns of neuronal activity trigger distinct responses of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the corpus callosum

Functional changes at synapses between axons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells ' as well as proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vivo ' depend on the pattern of neuronal activity.

Lef1-dependent hypothalamic neurogenesis inhibits anxiety

Genetic models in zebrafish, mouse and Drosophila, and gene expression analysis in primates, reveal unexpected evolutionary plasticity in the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link Wnt signaling to innate anxiety-like behavior.

Spontaneous mutation rate is a plastic trait associated with population density across domains of life

Individuals in denser microbial populations are less likely to mutate to resist antibiotics; the same mutation avoidance mechanism underlies this phenomenon in two disparate organisms (the bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

Genomic dissection of conserved transcriptional regulation in intestinal epithelial cells

Comparative genomic profiling and in vivo reporter assays reveal previously unknown similarities between teleost and mammalian intestinal epithelial cells and identify conserved transcriptional regulatory sequences that are not typically detected by sequence conservation.

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