Subject: PLOS Biology Volume 15(9) September 2017 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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New Articles in PLOS Biology

PUBLISHED: September 01, 2017 to September 29, 2017

Essay

60 years ago, Francis Crick changed the logic of biology

September 2017 marks the 60th anniversary of one of the most significant lectures in the history of biology. This essay explores the rich content of Francis Crick's 1957 central dogma' lecture and its continuing power to help us think about how genes work.

Community Page

The Experimental Design Assistant

This Community Page article describes the Experimental Design Assistant, a free-to-use web-based tool which helps in vivo researchers plan their experiments and provides feedback to improve the experimental design and analysis plans.

Meta-Research Article

Spin' in published biomedical literature: A methodological systematic review

"Spin," commonly associated with propaganda, is also present in published biomedical research. This systematic review shows that the nature of spin varies with study design, with the highest prevalence in clinical trials.

Research Articles

Identifying genetic variants that affect viability in large cohorts

This study uses large biomedical datasets (UK BioBank, GERA) to directly observe natural selection in contemporary humans; a new approach identifies genetic variants with effects on age-specific mortality.

Simple rules can guide whether land- or ocean-based conservation will best benefit marine ecosystems

Contrary to conventional wisdom, direct active marine restoration can be the most cost-effective way to maximise the extent of coastal marine ecosystems ' such as seagrass ' over decade time-scales.

Place field assembly distribution encodes preferred locations

An optogenetic study in rats reveals how the hippocampal place cell network integrates spatial information and context reward value, enabling episodic memory for past experience to support future adaptive behavior.

Reduced insulin signaling maintains electrical transmission in a neural circuit in aging flies

Reduced insulin signaling can improve function and increase lifespan in a number of species. This study, combining imaging, in vivo electrophysiology and cell culture, demonstrates that attenuated insulin signaling has beneficial effects on the functioning of a neuronal circuit in aging Drosophila.

Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch

A study of rats explores how factors such as sexual experience influence the development of genital cortex and how genital cortex growth affects female sexual maturation.

A new discrete dynamic model of ABA-induced stomatal closure predicts key feedback loops

Structural, logic-based, and experimental analysis of a plant signal transduction network regulating stomatal closure predicts a previously unrecognized feedback mechanism involving cytosolic calcium ions.

Dynamic patterning by the Drosophila pair-rule network reconciles long-germ and short-germ segmentation

A modelling study finds that kinematic expression waves of the pair-rule gene even-skipped are crucial for segment patterning in Drosophila, suggesting that key aspects of long-germ segmentation are inherited from short-germ ancestors.

Transcriptome analysis of hypoxic cancer cells uncovers intron retention in EIF2B5 as a mechanism to inhibit translation

Transcriptomic analysis of head and neck cancer cells reveals alternative splicing of EIF2B5 as a previously uncharacterized mechanism of translational control under conditions of hypoxia.

Methods and Resources

Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development

Transcription start-site profiling of the chick from freshly laid egg to the moment of hatching reveals dynamic changes in genome-wide promoter usage during avian embryogenesis.

Extreme genome diversity in the hyper-prevalent parasitic eukaryote Blastocystis

A new comparative genome study of Blastocystis, a parasite commonly found in the human gut, uncovers high levels of differences between Blastocystis subtypes and provides a resource for future investigations.

A map of protein dynamics during cell-cycle progression and cell-cycle exit

A live-cell imaging study maps the dynamics of core cell-cycle regulators and reveals unexpected dynamics for several proteins in actively proliferating versus spontaneously quiescent cells.

Genome-wide identification of bacterial plant colonization genes

A genome-wide barcoded transposon mutagenesis study in a root-colonizing strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas simiae revealed over a hundred genes that significantly impacted the ability to competitively colonize roots of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

Formal Comments

What do we talk about when we talk about rhythm?

This Formal Comment points out the major challenges that exist for experimental design and neural signal analysis when researchers set out to study deceptively simple human percepts such as rhythm.' Read the associated Research Article here.

Dance to the rhythm, cautiously: Isolating unique indicators of oscillatory entrainment

This response to an accompanying Formal Comment delineates the experimental design and computational models necessary for overcoming the ambiguity in the concept of "rhythm", and identifying the neural signatures of oscillatory entrainment to streams. Read the associated Research Article here.

Correction

Correction: Dramatic and concerted conformational changes enable rhodocetin to block alpha 2beta 1 integrin selectively

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