This Editorial introduces a Collection of articles in which the authors explore the challenges and pitfalls of communicating the science of climate change in an atmosphere where evidence doesn't matter.
As we celebrate our anniversary, the PLOS Biology editors discuss recent initiatives taken by the journal (meta-research, complementary research policy, preprint posting, short reports, methods and resources, data policy, protocols.io) and look ahead to the next fifteen years.
The pragmatic strategies employed in adaptive therapy may also be employed naturally by multicellular organisms to deal with the inevitable development of malignant cells during growth and maintenance of normal tissue.
This Perspective article presents survey data which suggest that the public may not be particularly concerned about police access to personal genetic data that populate genealogical databases when the purpose is considered justified.
Data of skull measurements found after 180 years re-open a longstanding discussion about the origins of scientific racism in America and the role of bias in science.
Rapid loss of sea ice in the Arctic is altering marine mammal habitats. This Perspective article proposes a simple method to assess population status and guide conservation efforts.
This Perspective article explores how can science preserve its credibility as curator of knowledge while using a story-based communication format that can motivate people to care about problems facing society (but is agnostic to truth).
Snowballs are weather but glaciers are climate: this Perspective article argues the importance of using appropriate pictures when biologists communicate about climate change to the public.
This Perspective calls upon the biomedical industry to convert from using horseshoe crab blood for endotoxin detection to a recombinant-based synthetic alternative, showing that it has equivalent or superior efficacy.
In this Community Page article, Peter Hotez discusses the why, how (and how not) of cultivating your own personal brand as a scientist.
This Community Page article presents the Open-Source Seed Licence, developed by an interdisciplinary working group of plant breeders, agricultural scientists, lawyers and commons experts in Europe. The aim is to protect germplasm as a commons, support the free exchange of germplasm, stimulate plant breeding, reduce costs and accelerate innovation.
This Community Page article presents Spikeling, a build-your-own open source in silico implementation of a spiking neuron that costs pounds 25 and mimics a wide range of neuronal behaviors for classroom education and public neuroscience outreach.
In this Open Highlight, Senior Editor Lauren Richardson features exciting new Open Access research into how species evolve their characteristic traits.
Bacteriophages can be useful antibacterial agents. This study shows that bacterial resistance to a focal phage can provide cross-resistance to unrelated phages that bind the same host receptor, and that this cross-resistance predicts how well combinations of phage will suppress bacterial growth.
A study of modulation by the neurotransmitter GABA in the olfactory bulb reveals a novel neural pathway linking olfactory and motor centers in the brain of lampreys.
The noncoding RNA Ginir functions as an oncogene, triggering dysregulation of mitosis by disrupting the interaction between Cep112 and Brca1, and causing malignant transformation.
A study of sleep in lizards shows that as in mammals and birds, two distinct sleep states exist, suggesting that this is an ancestral feature of amniotes; however the phenotype of these states differs between closely related species.
Imaging populations of neurons in a sensorimotor system (the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system) reveals that different sensory modalities are represented by a combinatorial code of excitatory and inhibitory responses.
In response to a CNS injury, peripheral immune cells infiltrate the lesion site and communicate directly with resident immune cells, suppress their key functions and aid recovery.
Phosphoglucomutase 1 is found to act as a metabolic tumor suppressor that inhibits the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by switching glycolysis to glycogenesis.
This computational modelling study links midfrontal cortex theta oscillations to the detection of Pavlovian conflict, and the exertion of cognitive control to reduce the impact of maladaptive, Pavlovian biases (but not learning biases).
Binding of the peptide ligand RALF1 to the plant receptor-like kinase FERONIA causes phosphorylation of EBP1 and promotes its nuclear-accumulation to regulate growth- and stress-related gene expression and provide negative feedback on RALF1 signaling.
People and animals typically both want and like rewards. This study shows that the interplay between medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum encodes and expresses the degree to which humans value rewards both motivationally and hedonically.
A developmental study in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster shows that apical-basal polarity in the midgut epithelium is established by a different mechanism from other Drosophila epithelia, but more akin to that of vertebrate epithelia.
Cardiometabolic regulation mediated by the microRNA miR-29 contributes to cardiac homeostasis through the control of the transcriptional co-activator PGC1a, a master regulator of mitochondrial biology.
Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is an economically important pathogen of freshwater prawns. Determination of the structure of the MrNV virion by cryo-electron microscopy reveals a capsid protein that is highly divergent from other known nodaviruses but has a surprising resemblance to plant-infecting tombusviruses.
A combination of cell type-targeted ammonium transporters and a Casparian strip mutant reveals the contribution of different transport pathways to the radial movement of ammonium and the partitioning of nitrogen between roots and shoots.
Human papillomavirus uses the host cell's transcriptional regulators CTCF and YY1 to regulate early gene expression via the formation of an epigenetically repressed chromatin loop.
A theoretical model shows how the evolution of cooperation in microbes can shape the genetic architecture, favouring a linkage between cooperation and the production of privately beneficial traits.
Neuronal recordings in monkeys reveal that the basal ganglia are involved in covert selective attention, demonstrating a link between this ancient brain structure and higher-level perceptual functions.
A combination of sound-evoked extracellular field potential recordings and mathematical modeling reveals a neural code for the extraordinarily precise registration of the timing of acoustic events in echolocating bats.
Expression of oogenesis regulator bruno is a key determinant of fruit fly germline loss in the face of transposable element (TE) activity. This is the first example of natural variation in TE tolerance, whereby host cells modulate the deleterious effects without regulating transposition.
Host soluble mediators such as cytokines play a key role in the regulation of the immune response. This study shows that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells require an intact IL-4Ralpha -mediated signaling pathway to efficiently contain immune responses and control tissue inflammation during helminth infection.
Repetitive magnetic field stimulation induces the production of Reactive Oxygen Species in human cells through the action of cryptochromes. Cryptochromes are flavoprotein receptors implicated in magnetosensing in many organisms, indicating an evolutionarily conserved magnetic response mechanism.
The development of biofilm in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans induces packaging of distinct vesicle cargoes that play a role in extracellular matrix biogenesis.
Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve reveal sharper frequency tuning in humans than in animal models, but more limited phase-locking to the waveform of tones.
Nicotine-induced changes in the methylation of mouse spermatozoal DNA are associated with alterations in behavioral and neurotransmitter phenotypes of multiple generations descending from the nicotine-exposed males.
Can oxygen delivery be directed to severely hypoxic tissues? This study shows that an engineered hemoprotein with a high oxygen affinity can oxygenate failing sheep hearts without altering global oxygen exposure or triggering systemic toxicity.
Cells lacking essential patterning determinants are eliminated from developing tissues by apoptosis; this study shows that cell death in fruit fly segmentation mutants results from disruption of the pattern of EGFR signalling, which in normal embryos coordinates segment size with patterning information.
Methods and Resources
A transcriptomic study shows that myopic and hyperopic defocus signals drive the growth of developing primate eyes in opposite directions via different signaling pathways.
The monitoring and clustering of voluntary wheel running provides a novel tool to assess severity in laboratory mice, thereby enabling unbiased individual severity grading that contributes to 3R principles.
Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) has become a powerful tool for the systematic investigation of cellular diversity. This study presents sc-UniFrac, a statistically robust single-cell diversity comparison tool that enables quantitative assessment of similarities and differences amongst multiple scRNA-seq samples.
This Formal Comment aims to clarify examples presented in a recent paper by Lazic et al., which provided guidance with respect to experimental design.
This Formal Comment responds to Jordan et al., and stresses that if scientific findings are to be robust, training in experimental design and statistics is critical to ensure that research questions, design considerations, and analyses are aligned.