Subject: PLOS Biology Volume 16(5) May 2018 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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PUBLISHED: May 01, 2018 to May 31, 2018

Unsolved Mysteries

Do plants have a segregated germline?

This essay by Robert Lanfear re-visits an old mystery ' the nature of the plant germline ' concluding that we know a lot less than we think we do, and proposing a new approach to reveal the nature of the germline in all plants.

Unsolved mysteries: How does lipid peroxidation cause ferroptosis?

This article explores three unsolved mysteries about the process of lipid peroxidation that drives cell death by ferroptosis, and how these may illuminate new therapeutic strategies and regulatory mechanisms.

Research Articles

A direct link between MITF, innate immunity, and hair graying

The suppression of innate immunity gene expression in hair follicle melanocytes is important for preventing hairs from going gray; the transcription factor MITF plays a role in this repression.

Active photosynthetic inhibition mediated by MPK3/MPK6 is critical to effector-triggered immunity

Prolonged inhibition of photosynthesis and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, induced by MPK3/MPK6 activation, are essential downstream components of NLR-mediated effector-triggered immunity in plants.

Morphological changes of plasma membrane and protein assembly during clathrin-mediated endocytosis

Correlative time-lapse imaging of a living cell using high-speed atomic force microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed morphological changes of the plasma membrane and protein localization during clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

Robust stochastic Turing patterns in the development of a one-dimensional cyanobacterial organism

An experimental and theoretical study suggests that fluctuations in molecular numbers seed the formation of nearly-regular developmental patterns in Anabaena, a cyanobacterium that forms one-dimensional patterns of two cell types.

Structural basis for overhang excision and terminal unwinding of DNA duplexes by TREX1

Structural analyses and activity assays with tailored substrates reveal insights on how the DNA repair 3Č-to-5Č exonuclease TREX1 precisely trims 3Č-overhangs in dsDNA and unwinds the terminal base-pairing of the duplex.

The Cybathlon BCI race: Successful longitudinal mutual learning with two tetraplegic users

Analysis of the training process of two tetraplegic users towards their participation in the Cybathlon competition confirms the efficacy of mutual learning in brain-computer interfaces based on imagines movements.

Rif1 prolongs the embryonic S phase at the Drosophila mid-blastula transition

The cell cycle slows during embryonic development. This study in the Drosophila embryo shows that the protein Rif1 promotes this slowing by controlling the onset of late replication.

Death and population dynamics affect mutation rate estimates and evolvability under stress in bacteria

Do sub-inhibitory antibiotic treatments increase genetic diversity? Challenging this common belief, this study shows that reported increases in mutation rates are systematically over-estimated because of cell death, and are often compensated by reduced population sizes.

Hey1- and p53-dependent TrkC proapoptotic activity controls neuroblastoma growth

In the absence of its ligand neurotrophin-3, the cell surface receptor TrkC acts as a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma by triggering apoptosis; this study shows that its caspase-cleaved "killer fragment" is translocated to the nucleus, interacts with Hey1, and stabilizes p53.

Metabolic benefits of inhibition of p38alpha in white adipose tissue in obesity

In vivo and in vitro studies of mice reveal a vital role for the MAP kinase p38alpha in the browning of white fat and in energy homeostasis; animals lacking p38alpha in adipose tissues display a lean phenotype, improved metabolism, and resistance to diet-induced obesity.

Tissue-specific activities of the Fat1 cadherin cooperate to control neuromuscular morphogenesis

This study explores how the cadherin Fat1 tunes the morphogenesis of subsets of muscles and their partner motor neurons by playing distinct complementary activities in motor neurons, muscles and connective tissues.

Treadmilling analysis reveals new insights into dynamic FtsZ ring architecture

FtsZ, the primary protein of the bacterial Z ring that guides cell division, when artificially targeted to the membrane in the absence of its normal membrane anchor FtsA, self-assembles to form dynamic chiral rings in manner dependent on surface concentration.

Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites integrate sterol and phospholipid regulation

Eliminating the contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane in yeast reveals their role in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate turn-over, and shows that they are not needed for non-vesicular sterol exchange.

A novel unsupervised analysis of electrophysiological signals reveals new sleep substages in mice

A novel approach to the analysis of EEG/EMG data enables the identification of multiple sub-stages of sleep and wakefulness in a range of mouse strains, helping to refine our understanding of sleep biology.

Zbtb7a is a transducer for the control of promoter accessibility by NF-kappa B and multiple other transcription factors

The protein Zbtb7a is found to represent a specialized ˜transducer' factor, which binds to many genomic promoters and enhancers, and which is required to enable transcription factors to regulate accessibility and to drive gene activation.

Import volumes and biosecurity interventions shape the arrival rate of fungal pathogens

A study of plant-pathogen records shows that the arrival of pathogens on economically important plants in New Zealand accelerated with imports for 100 years, but arrivals in some sectors have recently declined, likely reflecting the effects of biosecurity measures.

Microsaccade-rhythmic modulation of neural synchronization and coding within and across cortical areas V1 and V2

Primates sample their visual environment actively through saccades and microsaccades. A study of macaques shows that neural rhythmic communication between visual cortical areas V1 and V2 depends on the timing of microsaccades.

Short Reports

Identifying novel strategies for treating human hair loss disorders: Cyclosporine A suppresses the Wnt inhibitor, SFRP1, in the dermal papilla of human scalp hair follicles

An immunopharmacological approach using Cyclosporine A reveals a novel and more targeted therapeutic strategy for treating human hair loss disorders by manipulation of the Wnt pathway.

Tumor-associated neutrophils suppress pro-tumoral IL-17+ gamma delta T cells through induction of oxidative stress

During tumor progression, neutrophils inhibit a tumor-supporting subset of T cells ' the interleukin-17-producing gamma delta T cells. This study shows that their particular sensitivity to neutrophil-induced oxidative stress is due to their low levels of the anti-oxidant glutathione.

Receptors of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism, GPR91 and GPR99, mediate axon growth

A combination of pharmacological and genetic modulations reveals the roles of two intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism ' succinate and a-ketoglutarate ' and their receptors on the growth of retinal ganglion cell axons during development of the retino-thalamic system.

A G-protein-coupled chemoattractant receptor recognizes lipopolysaccharide for bacterial phagocytosis

Experimental results and computational modeling show that a class C G-protein-coupled receptor simultaneously recognizes both diffusible and immobile ligands derived from bacteria to mediate chemotaxis and phagocytosis in the model social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

Methods and Resources

High-dimensional single-cell phenotyping reveals extensive haploinsufficiency

Using high-dimensional single-cell phenotyping, this study shows that 40% of essential genes in budding yeast exhibit haploinsufficiency, challenging the assumption that this phenomenon is rare.

Insight into small molecule binding to the neonatal Fc receptor by X-ray crystallography and 100 kHz magic-angle-spinning NMR

This structural biology study by Daniel Stöppler, Alex Macpherson, Hartmut Oschkinat, Alastair D. Lawson and co-workers establishes an innovative approach to characterizing the allosteric effects of ligand binding, here exploring new compounds that bind to the neonatal Fc receptor, a validated drug-target in autoimmune diseases.

Quantitative proteomic characterization and comparison of T helper 17 and induced regulatory T cells

Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of in vitro differentiated T helper 17 (Th17) cells and induced regulatory T (Treg) cells reveals protein expression changes that are not associated with changes at the transcriptional level.

Correction

Correction: Nucleic acid purification from plants, animals and microbes in under 30 seconds

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