This Research Matters article proposes that open notebooks present an opportunity for researchers to showcase their work, push the boundaries of open research practises and rapidly advance science in their field by making an immediate impact in their communities.
The eradication of smallpox was one of the greatest medical successes in history. In this Research Matters article, Susanna Bidgood explores the future of using poxviruses as versatile tools for cell biology research.
African sleeping sickness is an important disease of sub-Saharan Africa that is approaching elimination, but this Essay maintains that an overlooked anatomical reservoir ' human skin ' may impact control efforts.
Overlapping outbreaks of mosquito-borne viruses such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses have resulted in numerous coinfections, but we know little about their occurrence and consequences. This Unsolved Mystery article assesses the impact of coinfection on clinical disease and discusses the possibility of co-transmission.
This Perspective article argues that current large carnivore management in Alaska is a reversion to short-sighted and discredited concepts of the past and occurs without monitoring programs designed to scientifically evaluate the impacts on predator populations.
There is concern that the scientific literature is biased towards reporting statistically significant results. By contrast, this Perspective article presents evidence for an unusual situation in which there is a systematic bias towards publishing non-significant findings.
This Community Page article presents Science in the Classroom (SitC), a tool for undergraduate educators to introduce their students to primary scientific literature. Annotations scaffold the readers so that authentic scientific practices are explained and recognized for their importance in scientific communications.
This Community Page article presents open-source nucleic acid purification and handling protocols based on functionalised magnetic beads, with the aim of transforming life science research practice and its economics.
This Community Page article describes a data management workflow that can be readily implemented by small research teams and which solves the core challenges of managing regularly updating data. It includes a template repository and tutorial to assist others in setting up their own regularly updating data management systems.
Scientists waste substantial time writing grant proposals, potentially squandering much of the scientific value of funding programs. This Meta-Research Article shows that, unfortunately, grant-proposal competitions are inevitably inefficient when the number of awards is small, but efficiency can be restored by awarding funds through a modified lottery, or by weighting past research success more heavily in funding decisions.
The cellular autophagy pathway sculpts intracellular membranes to degrade or transport cytoplasmic contents. This study identifies components of this pathway that are hijacked by polio-, dengue and Zika viruses for their own membrane-associated amplification and dissemination.
The highly divergent outer membrane translocase (TOM) from the Trichomonas hydrogenosome (an organelle related to mitochondria) is composed of conserved core and lineage-specific subunits, and has an unconventional skull-like triplet-pore structure.
A highly conserved mechanism links the microtubule minus end'directed motor dynein to structurally diverse cargo adaptors through its light intermediate chain; this interaction is crucial for dynein function in vivo.
An RNAi functional screen of 40 Aedes aegypti genes specific to the mosquito lineage helped to identify EOF1, a protein that plays an essential role in mosquito eggshell formation and melanization.
Maternal sex pheromones incorporated within the wax layer of the fruit fly eggshell prevent the egg from leaking, and conceal it from predation by same-species larvae in an anti-cannibalistic strategy that may operate through chemical deception.
A combination of experimentation and biophysical modeling shows that tip growth in the brown alga Ectocarpus relies on a gradient of cell wall thickness, and not on a gradient of cell wall mechanical properties.
Comprehensive mapping of conformational stages adopted by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer during entry into the cell reveals the preference of broadly neutralizing antibodies for distinct pre-fusion states of the trimer.
White adipocytes use the organic cation transporter Oct3 for the uptake and subsequent degradation of norepinephrine, a major regulator of thermogenesis; Oct3-deficient mice show increased browning of white fat, dependent on adrenergic signaling.
A cryo-EM reconstruction of the archaeal PolD DNA polymerase assembly bound to DNA defines the minimal catalytic fold for two-barrel DNA and RNA polymerases and suggests a scenario for the evolution of the eukaryotic replicative apparatus.
A study in sheep suggests that maternal antioxidant treatment (with vitamin C) could be considered as clinical intervention during human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction, as it counteracts the developmental programming of hypertension in the adult offspring.
An asymmetric pheromone/receptor system in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe might allow flexible adaptation of pheromones to mutational changes while maintaining stringent recognition for mating partners, perhaps as a first step toward prezygotic mating isolation.
A population genetic analysis of human gut metagenomes reveals short-term evolution within individual species of gut bacteria, both within individual hosts, and across the larger population.
Mutations simultaneously influence the maximum growth rate r and carrying capacity K of a population, but the impacts can be concordant or antagonistic depending on the environment; this study uses data from thousands of yeast recombinants to reveal complex r-K relationships and the underlying causes.
The firing of DNA replication origins in metazoa implicates both broadly conserved and newly evolved processes, involving MTBP (the metazoan orthologue of yeast Sld7) and the cyclin C-dependent kinases Cdk8/Cdk19.
This study identifies a novel role for insulin in promoting paracrine crosstalk between the fibrotic stroma and progenitors during chronic liver injury, providing new insights into the impact of insulin resistance on tissue repair.
During specification of pineal photoreceptors in zebrafish, activation of the BMP signaling pathway is asynchronous between sister cells after division, and this Notch-controlled asynchrony is crucial for photoreceptor fate diversification.
New-born rodents are blind, deaf, do not whisker, and move little, so it has been assumed that sensory inputs contribute little to the development of the limbic system. This study shows, however, that both intrinsically-generated and odor-induced patterns of electrical activity in the olfactory bulb of neonatal mice control network entrainment in the entorhinal cortex, the gatekeeper of limbic circuits.
In the fruit fly, olfactory associations are formed in the mushroom body, while the lateral horn is thought to process innate olfactory responses. Here, a behavioral screen in fruit flies reveals neurons in the lateral horn that are selectively involved in the innate aversive response to carbon dioxide.
Whereas specialist major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules initiate immune response against only relatively few pathogens, generalists provide protection against a broad range. Accordingly, this study shows that the geographical distribution of generalist MHC alleles in human populations reflects exposure to diverse infectious diseases.