Volume 221, Issue 4, August 2022
Visualizing and quantifying molecular and cellular processes in Caenorhabditis elegans using light microscopy
Fine-tuning acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 activity through localization: functional genomics reveals a role for the lysine acetyltransferase NuA4 and sphingolipid metabolism in regulating Acc1 activity and localization
Computational Resources, Software, & Databases
Variation in leaf transcriptome responses to elevated ozone corresponds with physiological sensitivity to ozone across maize inbred lines
Mutations in FMR1, which encodes RNA binding protein FMRP, lead to fragile X syndrome: the most common cause of autism spectrum disorder. Flanagan, Baradaran-Hervari et al. previously found that FMRP promotes translation initiation of large proteins in Drosophila oocytes—in contrast to its previously ascribed function as a repressor of translation elongation. By comparing ribosome profiling data and measuring steady state levels of FMRP targets, they now show that FMRP-dependent large protein translation is highly conserved in the mammalian cortex.
Genetics of Complex Traits
Genome Integrity and Transmission
Wang et al. explore 10 independent Ac::MTn transposition events, observing similar patterns of transposition activity as compared to standard Ac transposition. They identify a case of a likely MTn in the endogenous maize B73 genome and in 5 NAM founder lines, suggesting a historic occurrence of MTn transposition. They show MTn is capable of mobilizing segments of DNA long enough to include a typical full-length plant gene and could theoretically erode gene co-linearity in syntenic regions during plant genome evolution.
Complex mutation profiles in mismatch repair and ribonucleotide reductase mutants reveal novel repair substrate specificity of MutS homolog (MSH) complexes
Neurogenetics & Behavior
Octopaminergic/tyraminergic Tdc2 neurons regulate biased sperm usage in female Drosophila melanogaster
Population and Evolutionary Genetics
In rapidly evolving populations, multiple beneficial and deleterious mutations are often present simultaneously in a variety of linked combinations, and natural selection cannot act on each locus individually. Thus, classical population genetic theory, which treats each mutation independently, cannot be applied. Here, Melissa et al. present a general framework for calculating statistics of genetic diversity and divergence in these rapidly evolving populations. Their work expands on previous theory, connecting disparate parameter regimes from earlier studies into a more general analysis.
The impact of genetic modifiers on variation in germline mutation rates within and among human populations
Present in many taxa, gamete killers are genetic loci where one allele—the killer—enhances its transmission by destroying gametes that do not carry it. Here, Simon et al. decipher a pollen killer found in numerous crosses between Arabidopsis thaliana natural variants. They show this pollen killer acts as a poison-antidote system, where killer alleles have particularly complex and variable structures with multiple copies of the antidote gene—which evolved within the species and encodes a chimeric mitochondrial protein.