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Table of Contents — July 5, 2022, 119 (27) | PNAS
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Table Of Contents Page, PNAS Volume 119, Number 27

PNAS July 5, 2022

This Week in PNAS

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Commentaries

Letters

Physical Sciences

Applied Physical Sciences

Gated protein channels act as rapid, reversible, and fully-closeable nanoscale valves to gate chemical transport across the cell membrane. Replicating or outperforming such a high-performance gating and valving function in artificial solid-state nanopores ...
Formation of vitreous ice during rapid compression of water at room temperature is important for biology and the study of biological systems. Here, we show that Raman spectra of rapidly compressed water at greater than 1 GPa at room temperature exhibits ...
Positive magnetoresistance (PMR) and negative magnetoresistance (NMR) describe two opposite responses of resistance induced by a magnetic field. Materials with giant PMR are usually distinct from those with giant NMR due to different physical natures. ...

Biophysics And Computational Biology

Biofilm formation is an important and ubiquitous mode of growth among bacteria. Central to the evolutionary advantage of biofilm formation is cell–cell and cell–surface adhesion achieved by a variety of factors, some of which are diffusible compounds that ...
Although typically possessing four limbs and short bodies, lizards have evolved diverse morphologies, including elongate trunks with tiny limbs. Such forms are hypothesized to aid locomotion in cluttered/fossorial environments but propulsion mechanisms (...

Chemistry

Understanding the factors that influence the airborne survival of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in aerosols is important for identifying routes of transmission and the value of various mitigation strategies ...
Conventional machine-learning (ML) models in computational chemistry learn to directly predict molecular properties using quantum chemistry only for reference data. While these heuristic ML methods show quantum-level accuracy with speeds several orders of ...

Earth, Atmospheric, And Planetary Sciences

Sterkfontein is the most prolific single source of Australopithecus fossils, the vast majority of which were recovered from Member 4, a cave breccia now exposed by erosion and weathering at the landscape surface. A few other Australopithecus fossils, ...
The Sample Analysis at Mars instrument stepped combustion experiment on a Yellowknife Bay mudstone at Gale crater, Mars revealed the presence of organic carbon of Martian and meteoritic origins. The combustion experiment was designed to access refractory ...

Physics

Controlled electrobreakdown of graphene is important for the fabrication of stable nanometer-size tunnel gaps, large-scale graphene quantum dots, and nanoscale resistive switches, etc. However, owing to the complex thermal, electronic, and electrochemical ...

Social Sciences

Environmental Sciences

High COVID-19 mortality among Black communities heightened the pandemic’s devastation. In the state of Louisiana, the racial disparity associated with COVID-19 mortality was significant; Black Americans accounted for 50% of known COVID-19–related deaths ...

Psychological And Cognitive Sciences

Adequate pain management is one of the biggest challenges of the modern healthcare system. Physician perception of patient subjective pain, which is crucial to pain management, is susceptible to a host of potential biases. Here we explore the timing of ...
The healthcare workforce in the United States is becoming increasingly diverse, gradually shifting society away from the historical overrepresentation of White men among physicians. However, given the long-standing underrepresentation of people of color ...
We investigated the immediate and longer-term impact (over 4-6 months) of probable COVID-19 infection on mental health, wellbeing, financial hardship, and social interactions among older people living in England. Data were analysed from 5146 older adults ...

Social Sciences

Studies in the United States have shown that minority students might face a trade-off between better academic performance and peer acceptance, which has been termed “acting White.” This paper investigates racial differences in the relationship between ...

Biological Sciences

Anthropology

Sterkfontein is the most prolific single source of Australopithecus fossils, the vast majority of which were recovered from Member 4, a cave breccia now exposed by erosion and weathering at the landscape surface. A few other Australopithecus fossils, ...

Applied Biological Sciences

Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a lethal subtype of prostate cancer with limited meaningful treatment options. NEPC lesions uniquely express delta-like ligand 3 (DLL3) on their cell surface. Taking advantage of DLL3 overexpression, we developed ...

Biochemistry

Bacterial pathogens acquire heme from the host hemoglobin as an iron nutrient for their virulence and proliferation in blood. Concurrently, they encounter cytotoxic-free heme that escapes the heme-acquisition process. To overcome this toxicity, many gram-...
Cation–chloride cotransporters (CCCs) catalyze electroneutral symport of Cl with Na+ and/or K+ across membranes. CCCs are fundamental in cell volume homeostasis, transepithelia ion movement, maintenance of intracellular Cl concentration, and neuronal ...
Energy-converting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, is essential for cellular energy metabolism coupling NADH oxidation to proton translocation. The mechanism of proton translocation by complex I is still under debate. Its membrane ...
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise nearly 8% of the human genome and are derived from ancient integrations of retroviruses into the germline. The biology of HERVs is poorly defined, but there is accumulating evidence supporting pathological ...

Biophysics And Computational Biology

Although typically possessing four limbs and short bodies, lizards have evolved diverse morphologies, including elongate trunks with tiny limbs. Such forms are hypothesized to aid locomotion in cluttered/fossorial environments but propulsion mechanisms (...

Cell Biology

DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTis) reexpress hypermethylated genes in cancers and leukemias and also activate endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), leading to interferon (IFN) signaling, in a process known as viral mimicry. In the present study we show ...
All cells contain specialized signaling pathways that enable adaptation to specific molecular stressors. Yet, whether these pathways are centrally regulated in complex physiological stress states remains unclear. Using genome-scale fitness screening data, ...
AIDS-defining cancers declined after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) introduction, but lymphomas are still elevated in HIV type 1 (HIV-1)–infected patients. In particular, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs) represent the majority of all AIDS-defining ...

Developmental Biology

Regenerating animals have the ability to reproduce body parts that were originally made in the embryo and subsequently lost due to injury. Understanding whether regeneration mirrors development is an open question in most regenerative species. Here, we ...

Ecology

Biofilm formation is an important and ubiquitous mode of growth among bacteria. Central to the evolutionary advantage of biofilm formation is cell–cell and cell–surface adhesion achieved by a variety of factors, some of which are diffusible compounds that ...
Understanding the degree to which animals are shifting their phenology to track optimal conditions as the climate changes is essential to predicting ecological responses to global change. Species at low latitudes or high trophic levels are theoretically ...
Species richness varies immensely around the world. Variation in the rate of diversification (speciation minus extinction) is often hypothesized to explain this pattern, while alternative explanations invoke time or ecological carrying capacities as ...

Environmental Sciences

Evolution

Cetaceans are fully aquatic mammals that descended from terrestrial ancestors, an iconic evolutionary transition characterized by adaptations for underwater foraging via breath-hold diving. Although the evolutionary history of this specialized behavior is ...
Identifying the genetic basis of repeatedly evolved traits provides a way to reconstruct their evolutionary history and ultimately investigate the predictability of evolution. Here, we focus on the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus), which occurs in ...

Genetics

Immunology And Inflammation

Activated Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells differentiate into effector Treg (eTreg) cells to maintain peripheral immune homeostasis and tolerance. T cell receptor (TCR)–mediated induction and regulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is essential for ...

Medical Sciences

During normal T cell development in mouse and human, a low-frequency population of immature CD4CD8 double-negative (DN) thymocytes expresses early, mature αβ T cell antigen receptor (TCR). We report that these early αβ TCR+ DN (EADN) cells are DN3b-DN4 ...
Adequate pain management is one of the biggest challenges of the modern healthcare system. Physician perception of patient subjective pain, which is crucial to pain management, is susceptible to a host of potential biases. Here we explore the timing of ...

Microbiology

The majority of viruses within the gut are obligate bacterial viruses known as bacteriophages (phages). Their bacteriotropism underscores the study of phage ecology in the gut, where they modulate and coevolve with gut bacterial communities. Traditionally,...
Understanding the factors that influence the airborne survival of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in aerosols is important for identifying routes of transmission and the value of various mitigation strategies ...

Neuroscience

Correlated activity of neurons can lead to long-term strengthening or weakening of the connections between them. In addition, the behavioral context, imparted by execution of physical movements or the presence of a reward, can modulate the plasticity ...
Adolescence is a time of profound changes in the physical wiring and function of the brain. Here, we analyzed structural and functional brain network development in an accelerated longitudinal cohort spanning 14 to 25 y (n = 199). Core to our work was an ...
Memories are thought to be encoded in populations of neurons called memory trace or engram cells. However, little is known about the dynamics of these cells because of the difficulty in real-time monitoring of them over long periods of time in vivo. To ...
Fine audiovocal control is a hallmark of human speech production and depends on precisely coordinated muscle activity guided by sensory feedback. Little is known about shared audiovocal mechanisms between humans and other mammals. We hypothesized that ...
Understanding how the brain learns throughout a lifetime remains a long-standing challenge. In artificial neural networks (ANNs), incorporating novel information too rapidly results in catastrophic interference, i.e., abrupt loss of previously acquired ...

Plant Biology

The organization of the genome into transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin domains requires well-delineated chromatin boundaries and insulator functions in order to maintain the identity of adjacent genomic loci with antagonistic chromatin marks ...
Throughout their evolution, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich-repeat receptors (NLRs) have acquired widely divergent unconventional integrated domains that enhance their ability to detect pathogen effectors. However, the functional dynamics that drive ...
The master transcriptional repressor DREAM (dimerization partner, RB-like, E2F and multivulval class B) complex regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotes, but much remains unknown about how it transmits repressive signals on chromatin to the primary ...
Induction of a pluripotent cell mass, called callus, from detached organs is an initial step in in vitro plant regeneration, during which phytohormone auxin-induced ectopic activation of a root developmental program has been shown to be required for ...

Psychological And Cognitive Sciences

We investigated the immediate and longer-term impact (over 4-6 months) of probable COVID-19 infection on mental health, wellbeing, financial hardship, and social interactions among older people living in England. Data were analysed from 5146 older adults ...
Human vision is attuned to the subtle differences between individual faces. Yet we lack a quantitative way of predicting how similar two face images look and whether they appear to show the same person. Principal component–based three-dimensional (3D) ...

Corrections

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Cover image: Pictured is an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Briana Abrahms et al. examined a 30-year dataset including temperature, timing of reproductive life events, and reproductive success in 60 African wild dog packs. On average, wild dogs delayed birthing by 7 days per decade in response to long-term climate warming. However, the adaptation to stabilize birthing temperatures led to increased temperatures during denning periods, thus reducing reproductive success. The results suggest that climate-adaptive changes in life-event timing could be maladaptive in some animals. See the article by Abrahms et al., e2121667119. Image credit: Bobby-Jo Vial (photographer).

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