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Table of Contents — July 12, 2022, 119 (28) | PNAS
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Table Of Contents Page, PNAS Volume 119, Number 28

PNAS July 12, 2022

This Week in PNAS

Opinion

Retrospective

Commentaries

Perspective

The term “molecular ZIP (or area) codes” refers to an originally hypothetical system of cell adhesion molecules that would control cell trafficking in the body. Subsequent discovery of the integrins, cadherins, and other cell adhesion molecules confirmed ...

Letters

Brief Reports

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) has emerged as a significant medical problem without therapeutic options. Using the platinum-based chemotherapy cisplatin to model CICI, we revealed robust elevations in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) ...
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) promotes plant tolerance to major stresses such as drought, partly by modulating growth through poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that ABA-triggered repression of cell proliferation in the Arabidopsis ...

Physical Sciences

Applied Mathematics

In order to accommodate the empirical fact that population structures are rarely simple, modern studies of evolutionary dynamics allow for complicated and highly heterogeneous spatial structures. As a result, one of the most difficult obstacles lies in ...

Applied Physical Sciences

Crumpling an ordinary thin sheet transforms it into a structure with unusual mechanical behaviors, such as enhanced rigidity, emission of crackling noise, slow relaxations, and memory retention. A central challenge in explaining these behaviors lies in ...
The precise and accurate determination of the radionuclide inventory in radioactive waste streams, including those generated during nuclear decommissioning, is a key aspect in establishing the best-suited nuclear waste management and disposal options. ...

Biophysics And Computational Biology

Coupling of motor proteins within arrays drives muscle contraction, flagellar beating, chromosome segregation, and other biological processes. Current models of motor coupling invoke either direct mechanical linkage or protein crowding, which rely on ...
The genetic composition of the gut microbiota is constantly reshaped by ecological and evolutionary forces. These strain-level dynamics are challenging to understand because they depend on complex spatial growth processes that take place within a host. ...
Phase separation has emerged as an essential concept for the spatial organization inside biological cells. However, despite the clear relevance to virtually all physiological functions, we understand surprisingly little about what phases form in a system ...
Macromolecular phase separation is thought to be one of the processes that drives the formation of membraneless biomolecular condensates in cells. The dynamics of phase separation are thought to follow the tenets of classical nucleation theory, and, ...
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein is the prime target for vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutic antibodies against the virus. While anchored in the viral envelope, for effective virulence, the spike needs to ...

Chemistry

All-climate temperature operation capability and increased energy density have been recognized as two crucial targets, but they are rarely achieved together in rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries. Herein, we demonstrate an electrolyte system by using ...
The fluctuating hydrogen bridge bonded network of liquid water at ambient conditions entails a varied ensemble of the underlying constituting H2O molecular moieties. This is mirrored in a manifold of the H2O molecular potentials. Subnatural line width ...
Life as we know it is homochiral, but the origins of biological homochirality on early Earth remain elusive. Shallow closed-basin lakes are a plausible prebiotic environment on early Earth, and most are expected to have significant sedimentary magnetite ...

Earth, Atmospheric, And Planetary Sciences

East Africa is a global biodiversity hotspot and exhibits distinct longitudinal diversity gradients from west to east in freshwater fishes and forest mammals. The assembly of this exceptional biodiversity and the drivers behind diversity gradients remain ...
It is established that changes in sea level influence melt production at midocean ridges, but whether changes in melt production influence the pattern of bathymetry flanking midocean ridges has been debated on both theoretical and empirical grounds. To ...
Rising temperatures are associated with reduced body size in many marine species, but the biological cause and generality of the phenomenon is debated. We derive a predictive model for body size responses to temperature and oxygen (O2) changes based on ...

Engineering

Spatial variations in fiber alignment (and, therefore, in mechanical anisotropy) play a central role in the excellent toughness and fatigue characteristics of many biological materials. In this work, we examine the effect of fiber alignment in soft ...
Collagen is the most abundant component of mammalian extracellular matrices. As such, the development of materials that mimic the biological and mechanical properties of collagenous tissues is an enduring goal of the biomaterials community. Despite the ...
We have developed a DNA aptamer-conjugated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) biosensor platform to detect receptor-binding domain (RBD), nucleocapsid (N), and spike (S) proteins, as well as viral particles of original Severe acute respiratory ...

Physics

We characterize the universal far-from-equilibrium dynamics of the two-dimensional quantum Heisenberg magnet isolated from its environment. For a broad range of initial conditions, we find a long-lived universal prethermal regime characterized by self-...
We report results of low-temperature heat-capacity, magnetocaloric-effect, and neutron-diffraction measurements of TmVO4, an insulator that undergoes a continuous ferroquadrupolar phase transition associated with local partially filled 4f orbitals of the ...
Liquid polymorphism is an intriguing phenomenon that has been found in a few single-component systems, the most famous being water. By supercooling liquid Te to more than 130 K below its melting point and performing simultaneous small-angle and wide-angle ...
When an electron is incident on a superconductor from a metal, it is reflected as a hole in a process called Andreev reflection. If the metal N is sandwiched between two superconductors S in an SNS junction, multiple Andreev reflections (MARs) occur. We ...
Photoinduced phase transition (PIPT) is always treated as a coherent process, but ultrafast disordering in PIPT is observed in recent experiments. Utilizing the real-time time-dependent density functional theory method, here we track the motion of ...
Nucleation of clusters from the gas phase is a widely encountered phenomenon, yet rather little is understood about the underlying out-of-equilibrium dynamics of this process. The classical view of nucleation assumes isothermal conditions where the ...
An interplay between pairing and topological orders has been predicted to give rise to superconducting states supporting exotic emergent particles, such as Majorana particles obeying non-Abelian braid statistics. We consider a system of spin polarized ...
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Profile of Jainendra K. Jain

Statistics

Mendelian randomization (MR) is a valuable tool for inferring causal relationships among a wide range of traits using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Existing summary-level MR methods often rely on strong assumptions, ...

Social Sciences

Anthropology

In classical evolutionary models, the force of natural selection diminishes with age toward zero by last reproduction. However, intergenerational resource transfers and other late-life contributions in social species may select for postreproductive ...

Economic Sciences

Physicians’ professional ethics require that they put patients’ interests ahead of their own and that they should allocate limited medical resources efficiently. Understanding physicians’ extent of adherence to these principles requires understanding the ...

Psychological And Cognitive Sciences

Using word embeddings from 850 billion words in English-language Google Books, we provide an extensive analysis of historical change and stability in social group representations (stereotypes) across a long timeframe (from 1800 to 1999), for a large ...
Four studies demonstrate that the public’s understanding of government budgetary expenditures is hampered by difficulty in representing large numerical magnitudes. Despite orders of magnitude difference between millions and billions, study participants ...

Biological Sciences

Anthropology

In classical evolutionary models, the force of natural selection diminishes with age toward zero by last reproduction. However, intergenerational resource transfers and other late-life contributions in social species may select for postreproductive ...

Applied Biological Sciences

Liver regeneration is a well-orchestrated process that is typically studied in animal models. Although previous animal studies have offered many insights into liver regeneration, human biology is less well understood. To this end, we developed a three-...
Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems have been repurposed for various applications such as gene knockdown, viral interference, and diagnostics. However, the identification and characterization of thermophilic orthologs will expand and unlock the potential of ...

Biophysics And Computational Biology

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein is the prime target for vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutic antibodies against the virus. While anchored in the viral envelope, for effective virulence, the spike needs to ...
We have developed a DNA aptamer-conjugated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) biosensor platform to detect receptor-binding domain (RBD), nucleocapsid (N), and spike (S) proteins, as well as viral particles of original Severe acute respiratory ...
Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) possess specialized locomotor morphology, namely elongate and gracile distal limbs. While this contributes to their overall height and enhances feeding behavior, we propose that the combination of long limb segments and ...
Humans lack the capacity to produce the Galα1–3Galβ1–4GlcNAc (α-gal) glycan, and produce anti-α-gal antibodies upon exposure to the carbohydrate on a diverse set of immunogens, including commensal gut bacteria, malaria parasites, cetuximab, and tick ...
Coupling of motor proteins within arrays drives muscle contraction, flagellar beating, chromosome segregation, and other biological processes. Current models of motor coupling invoke either direct mechanical linkage or protein crowding, which rely on ...

Cell Biology

Studies on biological functions of RNA modifications such as N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in mRNA have sprung up in recent years, while the roles of N1-methyladenosine (m1A) in cancer progression remain largely unknown. We find m1A demethylase ALKBH3 can ...
Phenotypic variations in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer are often a predecessor and driver of ocular degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. We previously ...
Treatments for advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer remain a challenge due to a lack of potent, selective, and effective therapeutics. Here, we developed the basis for a transformative anticancer strategy based on anthrax toxin that has been engineered ...
The Hippo signaling pathway acts as a brake on regeneration in many tissues. This cascade of kinases culminates in the phosphorylation of the transcriptional cofactors Yap and Taz, whose concentration in the nucleus consequently remains low. Various types ...
Early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) is a transcriptional factor with a variety of roles in cell differentiation and metabolism. However, the functional roles of EBF1 in tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that EBF1 is highly expressed in triple-...

Developmental Biology

Teleost fishes and urodele amphibians can regenerate amputated appendages, whereas this ability is restricted to digit tips in adult mammals. One key component of appendage regeneration is reinnervation of the wound area. However, how innervation is ...
Abnormal placentation has been noticed in a variety of pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, early-onset preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. Defects in the developmental program of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), migrating from placental ...
The vertebrate inner ear arises from a pool of progenitors with the potential to contribute to all the sense organs and cranial ganglia in the head. Here, we explore the molecular mechanisms that control ear specification from these precursors. Using a ...
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the process of silencing one of the X chromosomes in cells of the female mammal which ensures dosage compensation between the sexes. Although theoretically random in somatic tissues, the choice of which X chromosome is ...

Ecology

Biotic interactions that hierarchically organize ecosystems by driving ecological and evolutionary processes across spatial scales are ubiquitous in our biosphere. Biotic interactions have been extensively studied at local and global scales, but how long-...
Forest ecosystems are strongly impacted by continuing climate change and increasing disturbance activity, but how forest dynamics will respond remains highly uncertain. Here, we argue that a short time window after disturbance (i.e., a discrete event that ...
East Africa is a global biodiversity hotspot and exhibits distinct longitudinal diversity gradients from west to east in freshwater fishes and forest mammals. The assembly of this exceptional biodiversity and the drivers behind diversity gradients remain ...

Environmental Sciences

Rising temperatures are associated with reduced body size in many marine species, but the biological cause and generality of the phenomenon is debated. We derive a predictive model for body size responses to temperature and oxygen (O2) changes based on ...

Evolution

Predicting evolution remains challenging. The field of quantitative genetics provides predictions for the response to directional selection through the breeder’s equation, but these predictions can have errors. The sources of these errors include omission ...
In order to accommodate the empirical fact that population structures are rarely simple, modern studies of evolutionary dynamics allow for complicated and highly heterogeneous spatial structures. As a result, one of the most difficult obstacles lies in ...
The genetic composition of the gut microbiota is constantly reshaped by ecological and evolutionary forces. These strain-level dynamics are challenging to understand because they depend on complex spatial growth processes that take place within a host. ...

Genetics

[PSI+] and [URE3] are prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on amyloids of Sup35p and Ure2p, respectively. In normal cells, antiprion systems block prion formation, cure many prions that arise, prevent infection by prions, and prevent toxicity of those ...

Immunology And Inflammation

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity ...

Medical Sciences

The role of autophagy in cancer is complex. Both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive effects are reported, with tumor type, stage and specific genetic lesions dictating the role. This calls for analysis in models that best recapitulate each tumor type, ...
Immunotherapy has had a tremendous impact on cancer treatment in the past decade, with hitherto unseen responses at advanced and metastatic stages of the disease. However, the aggressive brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM) is highly immunosuppressive and ...
Massive scientific productivity accompanied the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the citation impact of COVID-19 publications relative to all scientific work published in 2020 to 2021 and assessed the impact on scientist citation profiles. Using Scopus ...
Chromophobe (Ch) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arises from the intercalated cell in the distal nephron. There are no proven treatments for metastatic ChRCC. A distinguishing characteristic of ChRCC is strikingly high levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (...
Most retinoblastomas develop from maturing cone precursors in response to biallelic RB1 loss and are dependent on cone maturation-related signaling. Additionally, ∼2% lack RB1 mutations but have MYCN amplification (MYCNA), N-Myc protein overexpression, ...

Microbiology

Despite excellent vaccines, resurgent outbreaks of hepatitis A have caused thousands of hospitalizations and hundreds of deaths within the United States in recent years. There is no effective antiviral therapy for hepatitis A, and many aspects of the ...
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections initiate in the bronchi of the upper respiratory tract and are able to disseminate to the lower respiratory tract, where infections can cause an acute respiratory distress syndrome ...
The chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli has served as a model for exploring the molecular signaling mechanisms of transmembrane chemoreceptors known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Yet, fundamental questions about signal transmission ...
Most Actinobacteria encode a small transmembrane protein, whose gene lies immediately downstream of the housekeeping sortase coding for a transpeptidase that anchors many extracellular proteins to the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall. Here, we uncover ...

Neuroscience

The gastropod mollusk Aplysia is an important model for cellular and molecular neurobiological studies, particularly for investigations of molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. We developed an optimized assembly pipeline to generate an improved ...
The biological foundation for the language-ready brain in the human lineage remains a debated subject. In humans, the arcuate fasciculus (AF) white matter and the posterior portions of the middle temporal gyrus are crucial for language. Compared with ...
Declarative memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval require the integration of elements encoded in widespread cortical locations. The mechanism whereby such “binding” of different components of mental events into unified representations occurs is ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a canonical intracellular messenger playing diverse roles in cell functions. In neurons, cAMP promotes axonal growth during early development, and mediates sensory transduction and synaptic plasticity after ...
To understand the cortical neuronal dynamics behind movement generation and control, most studies have focused on tasks where actions were planned and then executed using different instances of visuomotor transformations. However, to fully understand the ...
Studies with experimental animals have revealed a mood-regulating neural pathway linking intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Since humans also ...

Psychological And Cognitive Sciences

The affective variability of bipolar disorder (BD) is thought to qualitatively differ from that of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with changes in affect persisting longer in BD. However, quantitative studies have not been able to confirm this ...

Corrections

SI Correction

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Cover image: Pictured is a pair of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Christopher Basu and John R. Hutchinson combined musculoskeletal models with motion-capture and ground reaction force data to quantify the mechanical efficiency of giraffe forelimbs during walking. The effective mechanical advantage of giraffe forelimbs was around four times lower than expected based on extrapolations from smaller mammals, indicating that giraffes exert high muscle forces while walking. The specialized anatomy of giraffes and other tall animals may result in a trade-off between athletic performance and traits such as feeding behavior. See the article by Basu and Hutchinson, e2108471119. Image credit: Christopher Basu.

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