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Table of Contents — September 20, 2022, 119 (38) | PNAS
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Table Of Contents Page, PNAS Volume 119, Number 38

PNAS September 20, 2022

This Week in PNAS

At the National Academies

News Feature

Commentaries

Perspective

Much of forensic practice today involves human decisions about the origins of patterned sensory evidence, such as tool marks and fingerprints discovered at a crime scene. These decisions are made by trained observers who compare the evidential pattern to ...

Letters

Brief Report

Shift workers have a 25 to 40% higher risk of depression and anxiety partly due to a misalignment between the central circadian clock and daily environmental/behavioral cycles that may negatively affect mood and emotional well-being. Hence, evidence-based ...

Physical Sciences

Applied Mathematics

The spatial and temporal patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases and COVID-19 deaths in the United States are poorly understood. We show that variations in the cumulative reported cases and deaths by county, state, ...

Applied Physical Sciences

Radiative thermal management provides a zero-energy strategy to reduce the demands of fossil energy for active thermal management. However, whether solar heating or radiative cooling, one-way temperature control will exacerbate all-season energy ...

Biophysics and Computational Biology

Mechanistic details of the signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated insertion of membrane proteins have been described from decades of in vitro biochemical studies. However, the dynamics of the pathway inside the living cell remain obscure. By combining ...
Synchronous release at neuronal synapses is accomplished by a machinery that senses calcium influx and fuses the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes to release neurotransmitters. Previous studies suggested the calcium sensor synaptotagmin (Syt) is a ...
Aerobic life is powered by membrane-bound enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons to oxygen and protons across a biological membrane. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) functions as a terminal electron acceptor in mitochondrial and bacterial respiratory ...

Chemistry

An accurate assessment of how quantum computers can be used for chemical simulation, especially their potential computational advantages, provides important context on how to deploy these future devices. To perform this assessment reliably, quantum ...

Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a crucial component of biosphere–atmosphere interactions. In northern latitudes, climate change is amplified by feedback processes in which BVOCs have a recognized, yet poorly quantified role, ...
Ureilite meteorites are arguably our only large suite of samples from the mantle of a dwarf planet and typically contain greater abundances of diamond than any known rock. Some also contain lonsdaleite, which may be harder than diamond. Here, we use ...
Refinements of the geological timescale driven by the increasing precision and accuracy of radiometric dating have revealed an apparent correlation between large igneous provinces (LIPs) and intervals of Phanerozoic faunal turnover that has been much ...
Recent studies have argued that global warming is responsible for a wavier jet stream, thereby driving midlatitude extreme flooding and drought. Polar amplification—the relative enhancement of high-latitude temperatures under global warming—is argued to ...
Biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) in the atmosphere contains many compounds that absorb solar radiation, called brown carbon (BrC). While BBOA is in the atmosphere, BrC can undergo reactions with oxidants such as ozone which decrease absorbance, or ...

Engineering

In this work, we investigate the anelastic deformation behavior of periodic three-dimensional (3D) nanolattices with extremely thin shell thicknesses using nanoindentation. The results show that the nanolattice continues to deform with time under a ...

Environmental Sciences

Understanding, prioritizing, and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions requires quantifying CH4 budgets from facility scales to regional scales with the ability to differentiate between source sectors. We deployed a tiered observing system for multiple ...
Understanding and predicting the relationship between leaf temperature (Tleaf) and air temperature (Tair) is essential for projecting responses to a warming climate, as studies suggest that many forests are near thermal thresholds for carbon uptake. Based ...

Statistics

We propose a method for supervised learning with multiple sets of features (“views”). The multiview problem is especially important in biology and medicine, where “-omics” data, such as genomics, proteomics, and radiomics, are measured on a common set of ...
To counteract the adverse effects of shocks, such as the global pandemic, on the economy, governments have discussed policies to improve the resilience of supply chains by reducing dependence on foreign suppliers. In this paper, we develop and quantify an ...

Social Sciences

Economic Sciences

To counteract the adverse effects of shocks, such as the global pandemic, on the economy, governments have discussed policies to improve the resilience of supply chains by reducing dependence on foreign suppliers. In this paper, we develop and quantify an ...

Political Sciences

Dense and compact cities yield several benefits for both the population and the environment, including the containment of urban sprawl, reduced carbon emissions, and increased housing supply. Densification of the built environment is thus a key ...

Psychological and Cognitive Sciences

At birth, infants discriminate most of the sounds of the world’s languages, but by age 1, infants become language-specific listeners. This has generally been taken as evidence that infants have learned which acoustic dimensions are contrastive, or useful ...
This study examined longitudinal data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care following exposure to severe psychosocial deprivation. We report data from 135 ...

Sustainability Science

Growing demand for minerals continues to drive deforestation worldwide. Tropical forests are particularly vulnerable to the environmental impacts of mining and mineral processing. Many local- to regional-scale studies document extensive, long-lasting ...

Biological Sciences

Agricultural Sciences

Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity conservation requires profound structural changes worldwide. Often, discussions are centered on management at the field level. However, a wide and growing body of evidence calls for zooming out and ...

Applied Biological Sciences

Cells respond to environmental stress by regulating gene expression at the level of both transcription and translation. The ∼50 modified ribonucleotides of the human epitranscriptome contribute to the latter, with mounting evidence that dynamic regulation ...
Progress in bottom-up synthetic biology has stimulated the development of synthetic cells (SCs), autonomous protein-manufacturing particles, as dynamic biomimetics for replacing diseased natural cells and addressing medical needs. Here, we report that SCs ...

Biochemistry

Mechanistic details of the signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated insertion of membrane proteins have been described from decades of in vitro biochemical studies. However, the dynamics of the pathway inside the living cell remain obscure. By combining ...
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein kinase that coordinates cell growth and metabolism, and plays a critical role in cancer, immunity, and aging. It remains unclear how mTOR signaling in individual tissues ...
Helicases are ubiquitous motor enzymes that remodel nucleic acids (NA) and NA–protein complexes in key cellular processes. To explore the functional repertoire and specificity landscape of helicases, we devised a screening scheme—Helicase-SELEX (...
IMPORTIN-4, the primary nuclear import receptor of core histones H3 and H4, binds the H3–H4 dimer and histone chaperone ASF1 prior to nuclear import. However, how H3–H3–ASF1 is recognized for transport cannot be explained by available crystal structures ...

Biophysics and Computational Biology

Aerobic life is powered by membrane-bound enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons to oxygen and protons across a biological membrane. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) functions as a terminal electron acceptor in mitochondrial and bacterial respiratory ...
T cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) plays a central role in stress granule (SG) formation by self-assembly via the prion-like domain (PLD). In the TIA-1 PLD, amino acid mutations associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral ...
The human Mixed Lineage Leukemia-1 (MLL1) complex methylates histone H3K4 to promote transcription and is stimulated by monoubiquitination of histone H2B. Recent structures of the MLL1-WRAD core complex, which comprises the MLL1 methyltransferase, WDR5, R...

Cell Biology

Trastuzumab is the first-line therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer, but often patients develop acquired resistance. Although other agents are in clinical use to treat trastuzumab-resistant (TR) breast cancer; ...
Energy is essential for all cellular functions in a living organism. How cells coordinate their physiological processes with energy status and availability is thus an important question. The turnover of actin cytoskeleton between its monomeric and ...
Muscle cell fusion is a multistep process where the final step of the reaction drives progression beyond early hemifusion events to complete fusion. This step requires activity of the muscle-specific fusogen Myomerger, a single-pass transmembrane protein ...

Ecology

Understanding and predicting the relationship between leaf temperature (Tleaf) and air temperature (Tair) is essential for projecting responses to a warming climate, as studies suggest that many forests are near thermal thresholds for carbon uptake. Based ...

Environmental Sciences

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a crucial component of biosphere–atmosphere interactions. In northern latitudes, climate change is amplified by feedback processes in which BVOCs have a recognized, yet poorly quantified role, ...

Evolution

A key property of many antibiotics is that they will kill or inhibit a diverse range of microbial species. This broad-spectrum of activity has its evolutionary roots in ecological competition, whereby bacteria and other microbes use antibiotics to ...
Metazoan adaptation to global change relies on selection of standing genetic variation. Determining the extent to which this variation exists in natural populations, particularly for responses to simultaneous stressors, is essential to make accurate ...
Inferring the transmission direction between linked individuals living with HIV provides unparalleled power to understand the epidemiology that determines transmission. Phylogenetic ancestral-state reconstruction approaches infer the transmission ...

Genetics

Mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and the RAD51 paralog RAD51C, predispose to tumorigenesis and sensitize cancers to DNA-damaging agents and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitors. However, ∼800 missense variants of ...

Medical Sciences

Nanobodies and chemical cross-linking were used to gain information on the identity and positions of flexible domains of PI3Kα. The application of chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) facilitated the identification of the p85 domains BH, cSH2, ...

Microbiology

Research ArticleSeptember 1, 2022Coronavirus (COVID-19)Video

SARS-CoV-2 requires acidic pH to infect cells

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry starts with membrane attachment and ends with spike (S) protein–catalyzed membrane fusion depending on two cleavage steps, namely, one usually by furin in producing cells and the ...
Outer membrane porins in Gram-negative bacteria facilitate antibiotic influx. In Klebsiella pneumoniae, modifications in the porin OmpK36 are implicated in increasing resistance to carbapenems. An analysis of large K. pneumoniae genome collections, ...
Extracellular vesicles mediate community interactions among cells ranging from unicellular microbes to complex vertebrates. Extracellular vesicles of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans are vital for biofilm communities to produce matrix, which confers ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is a clinically important, predominantly health care–associated gram-negative bacterium with high rates of emerging resistance worldwide. Given the urgent need for novel antibacterial therapies against A. baumannii, we focused on ...

Neuroscience

Synchronous release at neuronal synapses is accomplished by a machinery that senses calcium influx and fuses the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes to release neurotransmitters. Previous studies suggested the calcium sensor synaptotagmin (Syt) is a ...
Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) are a primary source of inhibition to the dorsal thalamus and, as they are innervated in part by the cortex, are a means of corticothalamic regulation. Previously, cortical inputs to the TRN were thought to ...
The ability of neurons to process and store salient environmental features underlies information processing in the brain. Long-term information storage requires synaptic plasticity and regulation of gene expression. While distinct patterns of activity ...
Forgetting is an essential component of the brain’s memory management system, providing a balance to memory formation processes by removing unused or unwanted memories, or by suppressing their expression. However, the molecular, cellular, and circuit ...
The neocortex, the center for higher brain function, first emerged in mammals and has become massively expanded and folded in humans, constituting almost half the volume of the human brain. Primary microcephaly, a developmental disorder in which the brain ...

Physiology

In humans, the uterus undergoes a dramatic transformation to form an endometrial stroma-derived secretory tissue, termed decidua, during early pregnancy. The decidua secretes various factors that act in an autocrine/paracrine manner to promote stromal ...
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a unique pain disorder characterized by intense paroxysmal facial pain within areas innervated by the trigeminal nerve. Although most cases of TN are sporadic, familial clusters of TN suggest that genetic factors may ...

Plant Biology

Fucoxanthin is a major light-harvesting pigment in ecologically important algae such as diatoms, haptophytes, and brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Therefore, it is a major driver of global primary productivity. Species of these algal groups are brown colored ...
RNA uridylation, catalyzed by terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases), represents a conserved and widespread posttranscriptional RNA modification in eukaryotes that affects RNA metabolism. In plants, several TUTases, including HEN1 SUPPRESSOR 1 (HESO1) ...

Population Biology

Habitat anthropization is a major driver of global biodiversity decline. Although most species are negatively affected, some benefit from anthropogenic habitat modifications by showing intriguing life-history responses. For instance, increased recruitment ...
The spatial and temporal patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases and COVID-19 deaths in the United States are poorly understood. We show that variations in the cumulative reported cases and deaths by county, state, ...

Corrections

Retractions

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Cover image: Pictured is the western end of Dauphin Island, Alabama. Heida L. Diefenderfer et al. examined the progress made over 10 years in restoring the coastal ecosystem along the Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The authors report that nearly half of the authorized restoration funds were spent or committed by the end of 2021, and a comprehensive assessment of the collective effects of coastal restoration is needed to inform future expenditures. Although the restoration effort is in dire need of assessment to synthesize and delineate the multiple effects of large-scale restoration, the Gulf Coast region currently lacks an entity to conduct such a synthesis, according to the authors. See the article by Diefenderfer et al., e2213639119. Image credit: Bethany A. Carl Kraft.

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