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Table of Contents — November 29, 2022, 119 (48) | PNAS
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Table Of Contents Page, PNAS Volume 119, Number 48

PNAS November 29, 2022

Biological Sciences

Fatty acids are vital for the survival of eukaryotes, but when present in excess can have deleterious consequences. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of multiple branches of metabolism. Studies in purified enzyme ...
The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) are highly versatile molecular chaperones that assist in a wide variety of protein-folding processes. They exert their functions by continuously cycling between states of low and high affinity for client ...
Trimethylglycine, or betaine, is an amino acid derivative found in diverse organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals, with well-established functions as a methyl donor and osmolyte in all cells. In addition, betaine is found in the nervous system, ...
The DEAH/RHA helicase Prp43 remodels protein–RNA complexes during pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing and ribosome biogenesis. The helicase activity and ATP turnover are intrinsically low and become activated by G-patch (gp) factors in the specific cellular ...
The afferent innervation of the cochlea is comprised of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), which are characterized into four subtypes (Type 1A, B, and C and Type 2). However, little is known about the factors and/or processes that determine each subtype. ...
The serious threats posed by drug-resistant bacterial infections and recent developments in synthetic biology have fueled a growing interest in genetically engineered phages with therapeutic potential. To date, many investigations on engineered phages ...
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are heterogeneous projection neurons that convey distinct visual features from the retina to brain. Here, we present a high-throughput in vivo RGC activity assay in response to light stimulation using noninvasive Ca2+ imaging ...
The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the major endoribonuclease RNase E not only serves as a scaffold for the central RNA decay machinery in gram-negative bacteria but also mediates coupled degradation of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and their cognate target ...
The B cell and T cell antigen receptors (BCR and TCR) share a common architecture in which variable dimeric antigen-binding modules assemble with invariant dimeric signaling modules to form functional receptor complexes. In the TCR, a highly conserved T ...
Descending motor drive and somatosensory feedback play important roles in modulating muscle activity. Numerous studies have characterized the organization of neuronal connectivity in which descending motor pathways and somatosensory afferents converge on ...
In ischemic retinopathy, overactivated retinal myeloid cells are a crucial driving force of pathological angiogenesis and inflammation. The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling are key regulators of ...
Intravacuolar pathogens need to gradually expand their surrounding vacuole to accommodate the growing number of bacterial offspring during intracellular replication. Here we found that Legionella pneumophila controls vacuole expansion by fine-tuning the ...
Skeletal muscle force production is increased at longer compared to shorter muscle lengths because of length-dependent priming of thick filament proteins in the contractile unit before contraction. Using small-angle X-ray diffraction in combination with a ...
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, or c9ALS/FTD. The RNA transcribed from the expansion, r(G4C2)exp, causes various pathologies, ...
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can attain prolonged undetectable HIV-1 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but brain injury remains prevalent in people living with HIV-1 infection (PLHIV). We investigated cell-associated (CA)-HIV-1 RNA transcripts in ...
The establishment of de novo chromatin accessibility in lymphoid progenitors requires the “pioneering” function of transcription factor (TF) early B cell factor 1 (EBF1), which binds to naïve chromatin and induces accessibility by recruiting the BRG1 ...
Granulopoiesis in the bone marrow adjusts cellular output as demand for neutrophils changes. Reactive granulopoiesis is induced by profound neutropenia, but its mechanism remains to be clarified. We herein explored its mechanisms using mouse models of ...
The Ca2+ and ADP ribose (ADPR)-activated cation channel TRPM2 is the closest homolog of the cold sensor TRPM8 but serves as a deep-brain warmth sensor. To unravel the molecular mechanism of heat sensing by the TRPM2 protein, we study here temperature ...
Riboflavin is produced by most commensal bacteria in the human colon, where enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) colonizes and causes diseases. Sensing environmental signals to site-specifically express the type-III secretion system (T3SS), which ...
Protein glycosylation is a crucial mediator of biological functions and is tightly regulated in health and disease. However, interrogating complex protein glycoforms is challenging, as current lectin tools are limited by cross-reactivity while mass ...
Platelets play a role not only in hemostasis and thrombosis, but also in inflammation and innate immunity. We previously reported that an activated form of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YRSACT) has an extratranslational activity that enhances megakaryopoiesis ...
The parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTHR1), a Class B GPCR, is activated by long polypeptides, including drugs for osteoporosis and hypoparathyroidism. The PTHR1 engages peptide agonists via a two-step mechanism. Initial contact involves the ...
There is growing interest in therapeutic intervention that targets disease-relevant RNAs using small molecules. While there have been some successes in RNA-targeted small-molecule discovery, a deeper understanding of structure–activity relationships in ...
Confining compartments are ubiquitous in biology, but there have been few experimental studies on the thermodynamics of protein folding in such environments. Recently, we reported that the stability of a model protein substrate in the GroEL/ES chaperonin ...
Whole genome duplications (WGDs) are one of the most dramatic mutations that can be found in nature. The effects of WGD vary dramatically but can have profound impacts on an organism’s expression, cytotype, and phenotype, altering their evolutionary ...
Extreme daily values of precipitation (1939–2021), discharge (1991–2021), phosphorus (P) load (1994–2021), and phycocyanin, a pigment of Cyanobacteria (June 1–September 15 of 2008–2021) are clustered as multi-day events for Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Long-...
The function of many channels and transporters is enriched by the conformational plasticity of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Copper transporter 1 (Ctr1) is the main entry point for Cu(I) ions in eukaryotes and contains IDRs both at its N-...
LMB-100 is a recombinant immunotoxin composed of a Fab linked to a toxin. It kills cells expressing human mesothelin (hMSLN), which is highly expressed on the surface of mesothelioma and many other cancer cells. Clinically, we observed some patients had ...
Colocalization of enzymes is a proven approach to increase pathway flux and the synthesis of nonnative products. Here, we develop a method for enzyme colocalization using the yeast peroxisomal membrane as an anchor point. Pathway enzymes were fused to the ...
Super-enhancers (SEs) are exceptionally large enhancers and are recognized to play prominent roles in cell identity in mammalian species. We surveyed the genomic regions containing large clusters of accessible chromatin regions (ACRs) marked by ...
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are essential for the establishment of T cell central tolerance. The transcription factor Aire plays a key role in this process, but other factors remain understudied. We found that a small population of mTECs ...
Juvenile hormones (JHs) control insect metamorphosis and reproduction. JHs act through a receptor complex consisting of methoprene-tolerant (Met) and taiman (Tai) proteins to induce transcription of specific genes. Among chemically diverse synthetic JH ...

Physical Sciences

The hydrophobicity of proteins and similar surfaces, which display chemical heterogeneity at the nanoscale, drives countless aqueous interactions and assemblies. However, predicting how surface chemical patterning influences hydrophobicity remains a ...
The formation and preservation of compositional heterogeneities inside the Earth affect mantle convection patterns globally and control the long-term evolution of geochemical reservoirs. However, the distribution, nature, and size of reservoirs in the ...
While cell migration can be directed by various mechanical cues such as force, deformation, stiffness, or flow, the associated mechanisms and functions may remain elusive. Single cell migration against flow, repeatedly reported with leukocytes, is ...
Plastic flow in metallic glasses (MGs) is known to be mediated by shear transformations (STs), which have been hypothesized to preferentially initiate from identifiable local “defect” regions with loose atomic packing. Here we show that the above idea is ...
Recent advances in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generation have produced notable gains in efficiency, particularly at very high emitter temperatures. However, there remains substantial room for improving TPV conversion of waste, solar, and nuclear heat ...

Social Sciences

Health authorities have highlighted “pandemic fatigue” as a psychological consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic and warned that “fatigue” could demotivate compliance with health-related policies and mandates. Yet, fatigue from following the policies of ...

Letters

Perspective

In different organs and tissues, the lymphatic system serves as a drainage system for interstitial fluid and is useful for removing substances that would otherwise accumulate in the interstitium. In the brain, which lacks lymphatic circulation, the ...

Commentary

Correction

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