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Current Issue of Trends Ecology Evolution


Issue: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Jul 01, 2021

Volume 36Issue 7p569-662, e1-e2
Many different pollinators often visit the same flower, as seen in this image where a bufftailed bumble bee (Bombus terrestris), a red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius) and a small sweat bee (Lasioglossum sp.) are sharing a plume thistle Cirsium rivulare flower. On pages 623–636, Willem Proesmans and colleagues discuss how such sharing of flowers is a potential conduit for insect pathogen spillover between species. Pathogen dynamics are shaped by both the plantpollinator network and species traits, and will be affected by global change. Photo credit: Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi...
Many different pollinators often visit the same flower, as seen in this image where a bufftailed bumble bee (Bombus terrestris), a red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius) and a small sweat bee (Lasioglossum sp.) are sharing a plume thistle Cirsium rivulare flower. On pages 623–636, Willem Proesmans and colleagues discuss how such sharing of flowers is a potential conduit for insect pathogen spillover between species. Pathogen dynamics are shaped by both the plantpollinator network and species traits, and will be affected by global change. Photo credit: Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi

Science & Society

  • Corona, Climate Change, and Evolved Human Behavior

    • Carsten Schradin
    Most scientists agree that we have to restrict climate change, but there is much frustration that we are failing. The Corona Crisis exemplifies how human behavior is constrained by its evolution, cognition, and resource availability, explaining why we do not act to avoid climate change for the benefit of future generations.
  • Time to Integrate Pollinator Science into Soybean Production

    • Lucas A. Garibaldi,
    • Lisa A. Schulte,
    • Diego N. Nabaes Jodar,
    • Dulce S. Gomez Carella,
    • Claire Kremen
    Soybeans cover 129 million hectares globally. Soybean productivity can increase with pollinator management, but soybean cultivation practices commonly ignore biotic pollination. If pollinator habitats are created within soybean landscapes and policies to limit agricultural expansion are implemented, millions of hectares could be restored for biodiversity without loss of soybean production.

Letters

  • Quantifying the Interrelationship between Livestock Infections and Climate Change: Response to Ezenwa et al.

    • Johannes Charlier,
    • Eric R. Morgan,
    • Ilias Kyriazakis
    Ezenwa and colleagues [1] bring welcome attention to the potential contribution of poor animal health to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by livestock, and to the influence of climate change on disease burden. They propose that these processes together fuel a positive feedback loop between climate change, disease, and atmospheric GHG concentrations. The goal of Ezenwa and colleagues was to highlight this issue of unappreciated feedback mechanisms and the impact of animal health on GHG emissions. However, the strong simplification of the described mechanism may lead to false conclusions and highlights the need for more empirical data and more rigorous modeling.
  • Response to Charlier et al.: Climate–Disease Feedbacks Mediated by Livestock Methane Emissions Are Plausible

    • Vanessa O. Ezenwa,
    • David J. Civitello,
    • Aimée T. Classen,
    • Brandon T. Barton,
    • Daniel J. Becker,
    • Maris Brenn-White,
    • Sharon L. Deem,
    • Susan Kutz,
    • Matthew Malishev,
    • Rachel M. Penczykowski,
    • Daniel L. Preston,
    • J. Trevor Vannatta,
    • Amanda M. Koltz
    Uncovering links between climate change and infectious disease is a pressing global health challenge. Our article called attention to potential positive feedbacks between climate change and animal infectious diseases via methane emissions from hosts [1]. Studies on the effects of climate on infectious diseases far outnumber studies on the reciprocal question. Therefore, much work is needed to assess whether such feedbacks are plausible and how to mitigate them. Given the scarcity of data on how diseases impact climate, we used three case studies to illustrate how diverse parasites affect methane emissions: helminths in sheep, bacterial mastitis in dairy cows, and rinderpest virus in wildlife.

Forum

  • New Approaches to Anticipate the Risk of Reverse Zoonosis

    • Peng Jia,
    • Shaoqing Dai,
    • Tong Wu,
    • Shujuan Yang
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic can cause reverse zoonoses (i.e., human–animal transmission of COVID-19). It is vital to utilize up-to-date methods to improve the control, management, and prevention of reverse zoonoses. Awareness of reverse zoonoses should be raised at both individual and regional/national levels for better protection of both humans and animals.

Opinions

    Featured Article
  • Evolutionary Responses to Warming

    • Angela McGaughran,
    • Rebecca Laver,
    • Ceridwen Fraser
    Climate change is predicted to dramatically alter biological diversity and distributions, driving extirpations, extinctions, and extensive range shifts across the globe. Warming can also, however, lead to phenotypic or behavioural plasticity, as species adapt to new conditions. Recent genomic research indicates that some species are capable of rapid evolution as selection favours adaptive responses to environmental change and altered or novel niche spaces. New advances are providing mechanistic insights into how temperature might accelerate evolution in the Anthropocene.
  • Environmental RNA: A Revolution in Ecological Resolution?

    • Matthew C. Yates,
    • Alison M. Derry,
    • Melania E. Cristescu
    Current advancements in environmental RNA (eRNA) exploit its relatively fast turnover rate relative to environmental DNA (eDNA) to assess ‘metabolically active’ or temporally/spatially recent community diversity. However, this focus significantly underutilizes the trove of potential ecological information encrypted in eRNA. Here, we argue for pushing beyond current species-level eDNA detection capabilities by using eRNA to detect any organisms with unique eRNA profiles, potentially including different life-history stages, sexes, or even specific phenotypes within a species.

Reviews

  • When Ecology Fails: How Reproductive Interactions Promote Species Coexistence

    • Miguel Gómez-Llano,
    • Rachel M. Germain,
    • Daisuke Kyogoku,
    • Mark A. McPeek,
    • Adam M. Siepielski
    That species must differ ecologically is often viewed as a fundamental condition for their stable coexistence in biological communities. Yet, recent work has shown that ecologically equivalent species can coexist when reproductive interactions and sexual selection regulate population growth. Here, we review theoretical models and highlight empirical studies supporting a role for reproductive interactions in maintaining species diversity. We place reproductive interactions research within a burgeoning conceptual framework of coexistence theory, identify four key mechanisms in intra- and interspecific interactions within and between sexes, speculate on novel mechanisms, and suggest future research.
  • Pathways for Novel Epidemiology: Plant–Pollinator–Pathogen Networks and Global Change

    • Willem Proesmans,
    • Matthias Albrecht,
    • Anna Gajda,
    • Peter Neumann,
    • Robert J. Paxton,
    • Maryline Pioz,
    • Christine Polzin,
    • Oliver Schweiger,
    • Josef Settele,
    • Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi,
    • Hans-Hermann Thulke,
    • Adam J. Vanbergen
    Open Access
    Multiple global change pressures, and their interplay, cause plant–pollinator extinctions and modify species assemblages and interactions. This may alter the risks of pathogen host shifts, intra- or interspecific pathogen spread, and emergence of novel population or community epidemics. Flowers are hubs for pathogen transmission. Consequently, the structure of plant–pollinator interaction networks may be pivotal in pathogen host shifts and modulating disease dynamics. Traits of plants, pollinators, and pathogens may also govern the interspecific spread of pathogens.
  • Life in Deserts: The Genetic Basis of Mammalian Desert Adaptation

    • Joana L. Rocha,
    • Raquel Godinho,
    • José C. Brito,
    • Rasmus Nielsen
    Open Access
    Deserts are among the harshest environments on Earth. The multiple ages of different deserts and their global distribution provide a unique opportunity to study repeated adaptation at different timescales. Here, we summarize recent genomic research on the genetic mechanisms underlying desert adaptations in mammals. Several studies on different desert mammals show large overlap in functional classes of genes and pathways, consistent with the complexity and variety of phenotypes associated with desert adaptation to water and food scarcity and extreme temperatures.
  • Plant–Soil Feedbacks and Temporal Dynamics of Plant Diversity–Productivity Relationships

    • Madhav P. Thakur,
    • Wim H. van der Putten,
    • Rutger A. Wilschut,
    • G.F. (Ciska) Veen,
    • Paul Kardol,
    • Jasper van Ruijven,
    • Eric Allan,
    • Christiane Roscher,
    • Mark van Kleunen,
    • T. Martijn Bezemer
    Plant–soil feedback (PSF) and diversity–productivity relationships are important research fields to study drivers and consequences of changes in plant biodiversity. While studies suggest that positive plant diversity–productivity relationships can be explained by variation in PSF in diverse plant communities, key questions on their temporal relationships remain. Here, we discuss three processes that change PSF over time in diverse plant communities, and their effects on temporal dynamics of diversity–productivity relationships: spatial redistribution and changes in dominance of plant species; phenotypic shifts in plant traits; and dilution of soil pathogens and increase in soil mutualists.
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